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Niederlande Peru

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Sind die Holländer die neuen Briten der EU? In der vierten Nacht einigen sich die Staats- und Regierungschefs doch noch auf ein Milliarden Euro schweres Aufbaupaket.

Dafür sind schmerzhafte Kompromisse nötig. Eine Analyse. Die europäischen Regierungschefs verhandeln immer noch über die Corona-Hilfen. Das liegt auch daran, dass dahinter ein grundsätzlicher Konflikt steckt, der über Europas Zukunft entscheidet.

Es geht um viel mehr als die Corona-Krise. Die ganze Nacht hindurch hatten sich kleine Gruppen getroffen. Kanzler Kurz warnt vor einer Schuldenunion.

Die Europäische Union debattiert über die Verteilung von viel Geld. Gelingt den Staaten die Einigung auf ein Wiederaufbaupaket? Erfolg oder Misserfolg könnte von einem einzigen Mann abhängen: dem niederländischen Premier Mark Rutte.

Unilever kehrt dem Land den Rücken — jetzt spielt auch der Ölkonzern mit dem Gedanken. Ein Grund dafür ist die Steuerpolitik.

Wegen Corona blicken viele Deutsche mit Bangen auf die Sommerferien. Andere wagen sich schon wieder in Flieger und an Strände — die erstaunlich leer sind.

Sechs Erfahrungsberichte. Der Staat wird vor den Europäischen Menschenrechtsgerichtshof ziehen.

Der Fund einer in einem Schiffscontainer versteckten Folterkammer ist selbst für die niederländische Polizei harter Tobak. Der Hauptverdächtige soll eine zentrale Rolle im Kokainschmuggel gespielt und eine Todesliste geführt haben.

Deutschland hat einen Kompromissvorschlag vorgelegt. Alle anderen Länder handelten vorschnell. In den niederländischen Nerzfarmen soll sich das Coronavirus von Tier auf Mensch übertragen haben.

Das Verbot der Zucht kommt nun schneller als zunächst geplant. Tierschützer dürfte das freuen. Deshalb wird das Geschlecht bald nicht mehr im Ausweis angegeben.

Vor allem im März gab es einen Sprung. Warum, erklärt eine neue Studie. Auch die Niederlanden stützen ihre angeschlagene Fluggesellschaft in der Corona-Krise.

Der Wohnungsbaukonzern aus Bochum wagt den Sprung ins Nachbarland. Zwar erwirbt Vonovia nur einen kleinen Anteil an einem Immobilieninvestor.

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Relatively high-lying swampland was drained to be used as farmland. The drainage caused the fertile peat to contract and ground levels to drop, upon which groundwater levels were lowered to compensate for the drop in ground level, causing the underlying peat to contract further.

Additionally, until the 19th century peat was mined, dried, and used for fuel, further exacerbating the problem. Centuries of extensive and poorly controlled peat extraction lowered an already low land surface by several metres.

Even in flooded areas, peat extraction continued through turf dredging. To guard against floods, a series of defences against the water were contrived.

In the first millennium AD , villages and farmhouses were built on man-made hills called terps. Later, these terps were connected by dikes.

In the 12th century, local government agencies called " waterschappen " "water boards" or " hoogheemraadschappen " "high home councils" started to appear, whose job it was to maintain the water level and to protect a region from floods; these agencies continue to exist.

As the ground level dropped, the dikes by necessity grew and merged into an integrated system. By the 13th century windmills had come into use to pump water out of areas below sea level.

The windmills were later used to drain lakes, creating the famous polders. The Netherlands is one of the countries that may suffer most from climate change.

Not only is the rising sea a problem, but erratic weather patterns may cause the rivers to overflow.

After the disaster , the Delta Works was constructed, which is a comprehensive set of civil works throughout the Dutch coast.

The project started in and was largely completed in with the completion of the Maeslantkering.

Since then, new projects have been periodically started to renovate and renew the Delta Works.

A main goal of the Delta project was to reduce the risk of flooding in South Holland and Zeeland to once per 10, years compared to 1 per years for the rest of the country.

New risk assessments occasionally show problems requiring additional Delta project dike reinforcements.

The Delta project is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of the seven wonders of the modern world. It is anticipated that global warming in the 21st century will result in a rise in sea level.

The Netherlands is actively preparing for a sea level rise. A politically neutral Delta Commission has formulated an action plan to cope with a sea level rise of 1.

The plan encompasses the reinforcement of the existing coastal defences like dikes and dunes with 1. Climate change will not only threaten the Netherlands from the sea side, but could also alter rainfall patterns and river run-off.

To protect the country from river flooding, another program is already being executed. The Room for the River plan grants more flow space to rivers, protects the major populated areas and allows for periodic flooding of indefensible lands.

The few residents who lived in these so-called "overflow areas" have been moved to higher ground, with some of that ground having been raised above anticipated flood levels.

The predominant wind direction in the European Netherlands is southwest, which causes a mild maritime climate , with moderately warm summers and cool winters, and typically high humidity.

This is especially true close to the Dutch coastline, where the difference in temperature between summer and winter, as well as between day and night is noticeably smaller than it is in the southeast of the country.

On average, snow can occur from November to April, but sometimes occurs in May or October too. Precipitation throughout the year is distributed relatively equally each month.

Summer and autumn months tend to gather a little more precipitation than the other months, mainly because of the intensity of the rainfall rather than the frequency of rain days this is especially the case in summer, when lightning is also much more frequent.

The number of sunshine hours is affected by the fact that because of the geographical latitude, the length of the days varies between barely eight hours in December and nearly 17 hours in June.

The highest recorded temperature was an established on 25 July The Netherlands has 20 national parks and hundreds of other nature reserves, that include lakes , heathland , woods , dunes and other habitats.

Most of these are owned by Staatsbosbeheer , the national department for forestry and nature conservation and Natuurmonumenten literally 'Natures monuments' , a private organisation that buys, protects and manages nature reserves.

It consists primarily of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but also includes mud flats, meadows, and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers.

Other activities include sailing, fishing, cycling, and bird watching. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the European territory of the Netherlands belongs to the ecoregion of Atlantic mixed forests.

In , the last old original natural woods were cut down, and most woods today are planted monocultures of trees like Scots pine and trees that are not native to the Netherlands.

Virgin Islands. The islands of the Caribbean Netherlands enjoy a tropical climate with warm weather all year round. The Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier than the Windward islands.

In summer, the Windward Islands can be subject to hurricanes. The Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy since , and due to the efforts of Johan Rudolph Thorbecke , [] became a parliamentary democracy since The Netherlands is described as a consociational state.

Dutch politics and governance are characterised by an effort to achieve broad consensus on important issues, within both the political community and society as a whole.

In , The Economist ranked the Netherlands as the 11th most democratic country in the world. The monarch is the head of state , at present King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands.

Constitutionally, the position is equipped with limited powers. By law, the King has the right to be periodically briefed and consulted on government affairs.

Depending on the personalities and relationships of the King and the ministers, the monarch might have influence beyond the power granted by the Constitution of the Netherlands.

The executive power is formed by the Council of Ministers , the deliberative organ of the Dutch cabinet. The cabinet usually consists of 13 to 16 ministers and a varying number of state secretaries.

One to three ministers are ministers without portfolio. The head of government is the Prime Minister of the Netherlands , who often is the leader of the largest party of the coalition.

The Prime Minister is a primus inter pares , with no explicit powers beyond those of the other ministers. Mark Rutte has been Prime Minister since October ; the Prime Minister had been the leader of the largest party continuously since The cabinet is responsible to the bicameral parliament , the States General , which also has legislative powers.

The members of the House of Representatives , the lower house , are elected in direct elections on the basis of party-list proportional representation.

These are held every four years, or sooner in case the cabinet falls for example: when one of the chambers carries a motion of no confidence , the cabinet offers its resignation to the monarch.

The States-Provincial are directly elected every four years as well. The members of the provincial assemblies elect the 75 members of the Senate , the upper house , which has the power to reject laws, but not propose or amend them.

Both houses send members to the Benelux Parliament , a consultative council. Both trade unions and employers organisations are consulted beforehand in policymaking in the financial, economic and social areas.

They meet regularly with the government in the Social-Economic Council. This body advises government and its advice cannot be put aside easily.

The Netherlands has a long tradition of social tolerance. In the late 19th century this Dutch tradition of religious tolerance transformed into a system of pillarisation , in which religious groups coexisted separately and only interacted at the level of government.

This tradition of tolerance influences Dutch criminal justice policies on recreational drugs , prostitution , LGBT rights , euthanasia , and abortion , which are among the most liberal in the world.

Because of the multi-party system , no single party has held a majority in parliament since the 19th century, as a result, coalition cabinets had to be formed.

Since suffrage became universal in , the Dutch political system has been dominated by three families of political parties: the strongest of which were the Christian Democrats , currently represented by the Christian Democratic Appeal CDA ; second were the Social Democrats , represented by the Labour Party PvdA ; and third were the Liberals , of which the right-wing People's Party for Freedom and Democracy VVD is the main representative.

These parties co-operated in coalition cabinets in which the Christian Democrats had always been a partner: so either a centre-left coalition of the Christian Democrats and Social Democrats was ruling or a centre-right coalition of Christian Democrats and Liberals.

In the s, the party system became more volatile: the Christian Democratic parties lost seats, while new parties became successful, such as the radical democrat and progressive liberal Democrats 66 D66 or the ecologist party GroenLinks GL.

In the election , the CDA lost its dominant position. In the elections , this cabinet lost its majority, because of an increased support for the CDA and the rise of the right LPF , a new political party, around Pim Fortuyn , who was assassinated a week before the elections.

The cabinet initiated an ambitious programme of reforming the welfare state , the healthcare system , and immigration policy. In these elections, the CDA remained the largest party and the Socialist Party made the largest gains.

The big winner of the elections was Geert Wilders , whose right wing PVV , [] [] the ideological successor to the LPF , more than doubled its number of seats.

This unprecedented minority government was supported by PVV, but proved ultimately to be unstable, [] when on 21 April , Wilders, leader of PVV, unexpectedly 'torpedoed seven weeks of austerity talks' on new austerity measures, paving the way for early elections.

On 5 November they formed the second Rutte cabinet. The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces, each under a King's Commissioner Commissaris van de Koning.

Informally in Limburg province this position is named Governor Gouverneur. All provinces are divided into municipalities gemeenten , of which there are The country is also subdivided into 21 water districts as of , governed by a water board waterschap or hoogheemraadschap , each having authority in matters concerning water management.

The Dutch water boards are among the oldest democratic entities in the world still in existence. Direct elections of the water boards take place every 4 years.

The administrative structure on the 3 BES islands, collectively known as the Caribbean Netherlands , is outside the twelve provinces.

These islands have the status of openbare lichamen public bodies. The Netherlands has several Belgian exclaves [] and within those even several enclaves which are part of the province of North Brabant.

Because the Netherlands and Belgium are both in the Benelux , and more recently in the Schengen Area , citizens of respective countries can travel through these enclaves without controls.

The history of Dutch foreign policy has been characterised by its neutrality. The Dutch economy is very open and relies strongly on international trade.

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation , to European integration , to international development and to international law.

One of the more controversial international issues surrounding the Netherlands is its liberal policy towards soft drugs.

During and after the Dutch Golden Age , the Dutch people built up a commercial and colonial empire. The most important colonies were present-day Suriname and Indonesia.

Indonesia became independent after the Indonesian National Revolution in the s following a war of independence, international pressure and several United Nations Security Council resolutions.

Suriname became independent in The historical ties inherited from its colonial past still influence the foreign relations of the Netherlands.

In addition, many people from these countries are living permanently in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has one of the oldest standing armies in Europe; it was first established as such by Maurice of Nassau in the late s.

The Dutch army was used throughout the Dutch Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch army was transformed into a conscription army.

The army was unsuccessfully deployed during the Belgian Revolution in After , it was deployed mainly in the Dutch colonies, as the Netherlands remained neutral in European wars including the First World War , until the Netherlands was invaded in World War II and defeated by the Wehrmacht in May In conscription was suspended, and the Dutch army was once again transformed into a professional army.

Since the s the Dutch army has been involved in the Bosnian War and the Kosovo War , it held a province in Iraq after the defeat of Saddam Hussein , and it was engaged in Afghanistan.

The military is composed of four branches, all of which carry the prefix Koninklijke Royal :. The submarine service is open to women as of 1 January The Korps Commandotroepen , the Special Operations Force of the Netherlands Army, is open to women, but because of the extremely high physical demands for initial training, it is almost impossible for a woman to become a commando.

The Netherlands has ratified many international conventions concerning war law. The Netherlands has a developed economy and has been playing a special role in the European economy for many centuries.

Since the 16th century, shipping, fishing, agriculture, trade, and banking have been leading sectors of the Dutch economy.

The Netherlands has a high level of economic freedom. The Netherlands is one of the top countries in the Global Enabling Trade Report 2nd in , and was ranked the fifth most competitive economy in the world by the Swiss International Institute for Management Development in Foodstuffs form the largest industrial sector.

Other major industries include chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, trade, services and tourism.

The Netherlands has the 17th-largest economy in the world , and ranks 10th in GDP nominal per capita. Growth slowed considerably from to with the global economic slowdown, but accelerated to 4.

In May , inflation was at 2. In Q3 and Q4 , the Dutch economy contracted by 0. Amsterdam is the financial and business capital of the Netherlands.

It is situated near Dam Square in the city's centre. As a founding member of the euro , the Netherlands replaced for accounting purposes its former currency, the "gulden" guilder , on 1 January , along with 15 other adopters of the euro.

Actual euro coins and banknotes followed on 1 January One euro was equivalent to 2. In the Caribbean Netherlands , the United States dollar is used instead of the euro.

The Dutch location gives it prime access to markets in the UK and Germany, with the Port of Rotterdam being the largest port in Europe.

Other important parts of the economy are international trade Dutch colonialism started with co-operative private enterprises such as the Dutch East India Company , banking and transport.

The Netherlands successfully addressed the issue of public finances and stagnating job growth long before its European partners. Amsterdam is the 5th-busiest tourist destination in Europe with more than 4.

The Netherlands continues to be one of the leading European nations for attracting foreign direct investment and is one of the five largest investors in the United States.

The economy experienced a slowdown in , but in recovered to the fastest pace in six years on the back of increased exports and strong investment.

The pace of job growth reached year highs in The Netherlands is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum 's Global Competitiveness Report.

Beginning in the s, the Netherlands discovered huge natural gas resources. The sale of natural gas generated enormous revenues for the Netherlands for decades, adding hundreds of billions of euros to the government's budget.

Apart from coal and gas, the country has no mining resources. The last coal mine was closed in The Groningen gas field , one of the largest natural gas fields in the world, is situated near Slochteren.

The cost of damage repairs, structural improvements to buildings, and compensation for home value decreases has been estimated at 6.

Around 35, homes are said to be affected. Netherlands is faced with future challenges as the energy supply is forecasted to fall short of the demand by the year in the gas sector.

This is attributed to the depletion of Netherlands's major gas field, Groningen, and the earthquakes that have hit the Groningen region.

Netherlands relies heavily on natural gas to provide energy. ON, Eneco and Delta that have significant influence over the energy policy.

This means the Dutch required nearly six times as much biocapacity as The Netherlands contains. As a result, The Netherlands was running a biocapacity deficit of 4.

The Dutch agricultural sector is highly mechanised, and has a strong focus on international exports. One-third of the world's exports of chilis , tomatoes and cucumbers goes through the country.

The Netherlands also exports one-fifteenth of the world's apples. Aside from that, a significant portion of Dutch agricultural exports consists of fresh-cut plants, flowers, and flower bulbs, with the Netherlands exporting two-thirds of the world's total.

Mobility on Dutch roads has grown continuously since the s and now exceeds billion km travelled per year, [] three quarters of which are done by car.

As part of its commitment to environmental sustainability, the Government of the Netherlands initiated a plan to establish over recharging stations for electric vehicles across the country.

The rollout will be undertaken by Switzerland-based power and automation company ABB and Dutch startup Fastned , and will aim to provide at least one station within a kilometre radius 30 miles from every home in the Netherlands.

Trains are frequent, with two trains per hour on lesser lines, [i] two to four trains per hour on average, and up to eight trains an hour on the busiest lines.

Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands. Almost as many kilometres are covered by bicycle as by train.

There are large bicycle parking facilities, particularly in city centres and at train stations. The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel , Switzerland, and into Germany and France.

As of [update] , Rotterdam was the world's eighth largest container port handling The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas.

From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In , the Betuweroute , a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, was completed.

Schiphol Airport , just southwest of Amsterdam, is the main international airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest airport in Europe in terms of passengers.

In , the Royal Schiphol Group airports handled 70 million passengers. The Netherlands had an estimated population of 17,, as of 31 May It is the 64th most populous country in the world.

Between and , the country's population almost doubled from 5. From to , the population further increased, to The fertility rate in the Netherlands is 1.

According to a estimate, the population was The Dutch are the tallest people in the world, by nationality, [] with an average height of 1.

According to Eurostat , in there were 1. Of these, 1. According to Dutch Central Statistics Bureau, in , 28 percent of the Dutch population had a spendable income above 45, euros which does not include spending on health care or education.

The official language is Dutch , which is spoken by the vast majority of the inhabitants. In the European part of the kingdom two other regional languages are recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

The first of these recognised regional languages is Low Saxon Nedersaksisch in Dutch. Low Saxon consists of several dialects spoken in the north and east, like Tweants in the region of Twente , and Drents in the province of Drenthe.

Secondly, Limburgish is also recognised as a regional language. It consists of Dutch varieties of Meuse-Rhenish Franconian languages and is spoken in the south-eastern province of Limburg.

Ripuarian language , which is spoken in Kerkrade and Vaals in the form of, respectively, the Kerkrade dialect and the Vaals dialect [] [] is not recognised as a regional language of the Netherlands.

These dialects are however sometimes considered to be a part of or related to Limburgish. English has a formal status in the special municipalities of Saba and Sint Eustatius.

It is widely spoken on these islands. Papiamento has a formal status in the special municipality of Bonaire. Yiddish and the Romani language were recognised in as non-territorial languages.

In higher level secondary schools HAVO and VWO , the acquisition of two additional modern foreign language skills is mandatory during the first three years.

Only during the last three years in VWO one foreign language is mandatory. Besides English, the standard modern languages are French and German , although schools can replace one of these modern languages with Chinese , Spanish , Russian , Italian , Turkish or Arabic.

Religious identification in the Netherlands [3]. The Dutch are one of the least religious people in the world.

Religion in the Netherlands was predominantly Christianity until late into the 20th century. Although religious diversity remains, there has been a decline of religious adherence.

In , Statistics Netherlands , the Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands, found that Groups that represent the non-religious in the Netherlands include Humanistisch Verbond.

Christians comprised the Islam comprised the 4. The Constitution of the Netherlands guarantees freedom of education, which means that all schools that adhere to general quality criteria receive the same government funding.

This includes schools based on religious principles by religious groups especially Roman Catholic and various Protestant.

By , Protestantism shrunk demographically to equal Roman Catholicism, and going onwards, both Christian branches began to decline.

There is one major exception: Islam which grew considerably as the result of immigration. Since the year there has been raised awareness of religion, mainly due to Muslim extremism.

The Dutch royal family has been traditionally associated with Calvinism , specifically the disestablished and now non-existent Dutch Reformed Church which merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands.

The Dutch Reformed Church has been the only major Protestant church in the Netherlands from the Protestant Reformation up until the 19th century.

It encompassed the vast majority of Protestants in the Reformed tradition until a series of splits in and in diversified Dutch Calvinism.

In , a Roman Catholic became Queen consort. Christianity is currently the largest religion in the Netherlands. The provinces of North Brabant and Limburg have historically been strongly Roman Catholic, and some of their people might still consider the Catholic Church as a base for their cultural identity.

Protestantism in the Netherlands consists of a number of churches within various traditions. Several orthodox Reformed and liberal churches did not merge into the PKN.

Although in the Netherlands as a whole Christianity has become a minority, the Netherlands contains a Bible Belt from Zeeland to the northern parts of the province Overijssel , in which Protestant particularly Reformed beliefs remain strong, and even has majorities in municipal councils.

Islam is the second largest religion in the state. This included migrant workers from Turkey and Morocco , as well as migrants from former Dutch colonies , such as Surinam and Indonesia.

Most of these are Indo-Surinamese. There are also sizable populations of Hindu immigrants from India and Sri Lanka , and some Western adherents of Hinduism-oriented new religious movements such as Hare Krishnas.

The Netherlands has an estimated , Buddhists or people strongly attracted to this religion, mainly ethnic Dutch people. There are about 45, Jews in the Netherlands.

Education in the Netherlands is compulsory between the ages of 5 and All children in the Netherlands usually attend elementary school from on average ages 4 to It comprises eight grades, the first of which is facultative.

Based on an aptitude test, the eighth grade teacher's recommendation and the opinion of the pupil's parents or caretakers, a choice is made for one of the three main streams of secondary education.

After completing a particular stream, a pupil may still continue in the penultimate year of the next stream. The VMBO has 4 grades and is subdivided over several levels.

Successfully completing the vmbo results in a low-level vocational degree that grants access to the MBO. The MBO middle-level applied education is a form of education primarily focuses on teaching a practical trade, or a vocational degree.

The HBO higher professional education are universities of professional education applied sciences that award professional bachelor's degrees; similar to polytechnic degrees.

A HBO degree gives access to the university system. The VWO comprising atheneum and gymnasium has 6 grades and prepares for studying at a research university.

Universities offer of a three-year bachelor's degree, followed by a one or two year master's degree, which in turn can be followed by a four or five-year doctoral degree program.

Doctoral candidates in the Netherlands are generally non-tenured employees of a university. All Dutch schools and universities are publicly funded and managed with the exception of religious schools that are publicly funded but not managed by the state even though requirements are necessary for the funding to be authorised.

Dutch universities have a tuition fee of about 2, euros a year for students from the Netherlands and the European Union.

The amount is about 10, euros for non-EU students. In , the Netherlands maintained its number one position at the top of the annual Euro health consumer index EHCI , which compares healthcare systems in Europe, scoring of a maximum 1, points.

The Netherlands has been among the top three countries in each report published since On 48 indicators such as patient rights and information, accessibility, prevention and outcomes, the Netherlands secured its top position among 37 European countries for six years in a row.

Ever since a major reform of the health care system in , the Dutch system received more points in the Index each year. According to the HCP Health Consumer Powerhouse , the Netherlands has 'a chaos system', meaning patients have a great degree of freedom from where to buy their health insurance, to where they get their healthcare service.

The difference between the Netherlands and other countries is that the chaos is managed. Healthcare decisions are being made in a dialogue between the patients and healthcare professionals.

Health insurance in the Netherlands is mandatory. Healthcare in the Netherlands is covered by two statutory forms of insurance:. While Dutch residents are automatically insured by the government for AWBZ, everyone has to take out their own basic healthcare insurance basisverzekering , except those under 18 who are automatically covered under their parents' premium.

If a person decides not to carry out an insurance coverage, the person may be fined. Insurers have to offer a universal package for everyone over the age of 18 years, regardless of age or state of health — it's illegal to refuse an application or impose special conditions.

In contrast to many other European systems, the Dutch government is responsible for the accessibility and quality of the healthcare system in the Netherlands, but not in charge of its management.

Healthcare in the Netherlands can be divided in several ways: three echelons, in somatic and mental health care and in 'cure' short term and 'care' long term.

Home doctors huisartsen , comparable to general practitioners form the largest part of the first echelon. Being referenced by a member of the first echelon is mandatory for access to the second and third echelon.

Healthcare in the Netherlands is financed by a dual system that came into effect in January Long-term treatments, especially those that involve semi-permanent hospitalisation, and also disability costs such as wheelchairs, are covered by a state-controlled mandatory insurance.

For all regular short-term medical treatment, there is a system of obligatory health insurance , with private health insurance companies.

These insurance companies are obliged to provide a package with a defined set of insured treatments. A key feature of the Dutch system is that premiums may not be related to health status or age.

Risk variances between private health insurance companies due to the different risks presented by individual policy holders are compensated through risk equalisation and a common risk pool.

Children under 18 are covered for free. Those on low incomes receive compensation to help them pay their insurance.

The Netherlands has had many well-known painters. Escher is a well-known graphics artist. Willem de Kooning was born and trained in Rotterdam , although he is considered to have reached acclaim as an American artist.

The Netherlands is the country of philosophers Erasmus of Rotterdam and Spinoza. The Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens — discovered Saturn 's moon Titan , argued that light travelled as waves, invented the pendulum clock and was the first physicist to use mathematical formulae.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms with a microscope.

Hooft as the two most famous writers. In the 19th century, Multatuli wrote about the poor treatment of the natives in the Dutch colony, the current Indonesia.

Anne Frank 's Diary of a Young Girl was published after she was murdered in the Holocaust and translated from Dutch to all major languages. The traditional Dutch architecture is especially valued in Amsterdam , Delft and Leiden , with 17 and 18th century buildings along the canals.

Smaller village architecture with wooden houses is found in Zaandam and Marken. A similar Holland Village is being built in Shenyang , China.

Windmills , tulips , wooden shoes , cheese, Delftware pottery, and cannabis are among the items associated with the Netherlands by tourists.

The Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and today is regarded as a liberal country, considering its drug policy and its legalisation of euthanasia.

On 1 April , the Netherlands became the first nation to legalise same-sex marriage. Dutch society is egalitarian and modern.

The Dutch have an aversion to the non-essential. The Dutch are proud of their cultural heritage , rich history in art and involvement in international affairs.

Dutch manners are open and direct with a no-nonsense attitude; informality combined with adherence to basic behaviour.

According to a humorous source on Dutch culture, "Their directness gives many the impression that they are rude and crude — attributes they prefer to call openness.

Asking about basic rules will not be considered impolite. The Netherlands is one of the most secular countries of Europe, and religion is in the Netherlands generally considered as a personal matter which is not supposed to be propagated in public, although it often remains a discussion subject.

Sustainability is a concept important for the Dutch. The goal of the Dutch Government is to have a sustainable , reliable and affordable energy system, by , in which CO 2 emissions have been halved and 40 percent of electricity is derived from sustainable sources.

The government is investing billions of euros in energy efficiency , sustainable energy and CO 2 reduction. The Netherlands has multiple music traditions.

Traditional Dutch music is a genre known as " Levenslied ", meaning Song of life , to an extent comparable to a French Chanson or a German Schlager.

These songs typically have a simple melody and rhythm, and a straightforward structure of couplets and choruses. Themes can be light, but are often sentimental and include love , death and loneliness.

Traditional musical instruments such as the accordion and the barrel organ are a staple of levenslied music, though in recent years many artists also use synthesisers and guitars.

Contemporary Dutch rock and pop music Nederpop originated in the s, heavily influenced by popular music from the United States and Britain. In the s and s the lyrics were mostly in English, and some tracks were instrumental.

As of the s, more and more pop musicians started working in the Dutch language, partly inspired by the huge success of the band Doe Maar. Today Dutch rock and pop music thrives in both languages, with some artists recording in both.

Trijntje Oosterhuis , one of the country's most well known and versatile singers, has made multiple albums with famous American composers Vince Mendoza and Burt Bacharach.

Early s Dutch and Belgian house music came together in Eurodance project 2 Unlimited. Selling 18 million records, [] the two singers in the band are the most successful Dutch music artists to this day.

Tracks like " Get Ready for This " are still popular themes of U. In the mid s Dutch language rap and hip hop Nederhop also came to fruition and has become popular in the Netherlands and Belgium.

Since the s, Dutch electronic dance music EDM gained widespread popularity in the world in many forms, from trance , techno and gabber to hardstyle.

The Amsterdam Dance Event ADE is the world's leading electronic music conference and the biggest club festival for the many electronic subgenres on the planet.

The Netherlands have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since its first edition in , and have won five times.

Their most recent win was in In classical music , Jan Sweelinck ranks as the Dutch most famous composer, with Louis Andriessen amongst the best known living Dutch classical composers.

Ton Koopman is a Dutch conductor, organist and harpsichordist. He is also professor at the Royal Conservatory of The Hague.

The latter, together with his Johann Strauss Orchestra , has taken classical and waltz music on worldwide concert tours, the size and revenue of which are otherwise only seen from the world's biggest rock and pop music acts.

The most famous Dutch classical composition is " Canto Ostinato " by Simeon ten Holt , a minimalistic composition for multiple instruments.

Film director Theo van Gogh achieved international notoriety in when he was murdered by Mohammed Bouyeri in the streets of Amsterdam after directing the short film Submission.

The Netherlands has a well developed television market, with both multiple commercial and public broadcasters. Imported TV programmes, as well as interviews with responses in a foreign language, are virtually always shown with the original sound and subtitled.

Only foreign shows for children are dubbed. TV exports from the Netherlands mostly take the form of specific formats and franchises, most notably through internationally active TV production conglomerate Endemol , founded by Dutch media tycoons John de Mol and Joop van den Ende.

Headquartered in Amsterdam , Endemol has around 90 companies in over 30 countries. Endemol and its subsidiaries create and run reality, talent, and game show franchises worldwide, including Big Brother and Deal or No Deal.

John de Mol later started his own company Talpa which created show franchises like The Voice and Utopia.

Approximately 4. About two-thirds of the population between 15 and 75 participates in sports weekly. The Netherlands national football team is one of the most popular aspects of Dutch sports; especially since the s when one of the greatest footballers of all time, Johan Cruyff , developed Total Football with coach Rinus Michels.

Tennis, gymnastics and golf are the three most widely engaged in individual sports. Organisation of sports began at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.

Federations for sports were established such as the speed skating federation in , rules were unified and sports clubs came into existence.

A Dutch National Olympic Committee was established in Thus far, the nation has won medals at the Summer Olympic Games and another medals at the Winter Olympic Games.

In international competition, Dutch national teams and athletes are dominant in several fields of sport.

Self-portrait by Vincent van Gogh. Retrieved 27 December Religious identification in the Netherlands [3]. Niederländischer Bandenkrieg :. After the ice age German Open Magdeburg, the moraine remained in the form a long hill-line. The result was that when the next large-scale battle did occur at Gembloux inthe Spanish forces easily Saga Spiel the day, killing at least 10, rebels, with the Spanish suffering few losses. This group consisted of tribes that would eventually develop into the Salian Franks. De Nieuws BV Gisteren TV Informatief.

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