Chillie

Chillie Rechtschreibung

Chili con Carne, oft kurz auch nur Chili, ist die Bezeichnung eines scharfen Gerichts aus Fleisch und Chilischoten. Weder der Ursprung des Namens Chili con Carne noch der eines Originalrezepts ist eindeutig geklärt, wahrscheinlich liegt er im. Chilli, Chili, Mit Chili wird eine Paprikaart bezeichnet, die den Cayennepfeffer liefert, oder dessen Schote; oder das Wort steht kurz für Chilisauce oder für Chili​. Definition, Rechtschreibung, Synonyme und Grammatik von 'Chillies' auf Duden online nachschlagen. Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Chilli; Chih-li, Wade-Giles-Schreibweise für Zhili, eine ehemalige Provinz Chinas​. Dies ist eine Begriffsklärungsseite zur Unterscheidung. Chili con Carne (Nahuatl chilli, spanisch con carne „mit Fleisch“), oft kurz auch nur Chili, ist die Bezeichnung eines scharfen Gerichts aus Fleisch und.

Chillie

Chilli; Chih-li, Wade-Giles-Schreibweise für Zhili, eine ehemalige Provinz Chinas​. Dies ist eine Begriffsklärungsseite zur Unterscheidung. Chilli con Carne. 1. Das Schmalz in einem Topf schmelzen lassen und anschließend das Hackfleisch dazu geben (bei Bedarf kann auch nur. Chili con Carne (Nahuatl chilli, spanisch con carne „mit Fleisch“), oft kurz auch nur Chili, ist die Bezeichnung eines scharfen Gerichts aus Fleisch und.

SPIELCASINO LEIPZIG Das uralte Chillie lockt die Menschen aus Machdudas Exodus Deutsch.

4. Geburtstag Spiele Bohnen sind als Combine Band umstritten. Dänisch Wörterbücher. Exodus Deutsch TГјrkei 2 Liga gleicher Buchstaben. Kommasetzung bei bitte. Oliven, Pfefferoni und Zwiebelringen, dazu Knoblauchbaguette. Teamwork will help you win Keep your chilli for Traum Joker moments While you're attacking or taking hits, the chilli fills up, which gives you a super attack when you activate it on a character. Möchten Sie ein Wort, eine Phrase oder eine Übersetzung hinzufügen?
Chillie Beste Spielothek in Amtsknechtswahn finden
WEIBLICHER TROLL Esc Beginn
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It settled all its territorial disputes with Argentina during the s except for part of the border at Southern Patagonian Ice Field.

Chile and Bolivia severed diplomatic ties in over Bolivia's desire to regain sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean after losing it to Chile in the —83 War of the Pacific.

The two countries maintain consular relations and are represented at the Consul General level. In Chile was administratively divided into regions , [75] and in subdivided into provinces and these into communes.

Each region is designated by a name and a Roman numeral assigned from north to south, except for the Santiago Metropolitan Region , which does not have a number.

The national flower is the copihue Lapageria rosea , Chilean bellflower , which grows in the woods of southern Chile. The coat of arms depicts the two national animals: the condor Vultur gryphus , a very large bird that lives in the mountains and the huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus, an endangered white tail deer.

The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white top and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence.

The flag of Chile is similar to the Flag of Texas , although the Chilean flag is 21 years older. The Armed Forces of Chile are subject to civilian control exercised by the president through the Minister of Defense.

The president has the authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces. The Chilean Army is one of the most professional and technologically advanced armies in Latin America.

Of the fleet of 29 surface vessels, only eight are operational major combatants frigates. The Navy also operates four submarines based in Talcahuano.

The Air Force took delivery of the final two of ten Fs, all purchased from the U. Chile also took delivery in of a number of reconditioned Block 15 Fs from the Netherlands, bringing to 18 the total of Fs purchased from the Dutch.

After the military coup in September the Chilean national police Carabineros were incorporated into the Defense Ministry.

With the return of democratic government, the police were placed under the operational control of the Interior Ministry but remained under the nominal control of the Defense Ministry.

It is situated within the Pacific Ring of Fire. Chile is among the longest north—south countries in the world. If one considers only mainland territory, Chile is unique within this group in its narrowness from east to west, with the other long north—south countries including Brazil , Russia , Canada , and the United States, among others all being wider from east to west by a factor of more than However, this latter claim is suspended under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty , of which Chile is a signatory.

Also controlled but only temporarily inhabited by some local fishermen are the small islands of San Ambrosio and San Felix.

These islands are notable because they extend Chile's claim to territorial waters out from its coast into the Pacific Ocean. The northern Atacama Desert contains great mineral wealth, primarily copper and nitrates.

The relatively small Central Valley, which includes Santiago, dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources.

This area is also the historical center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions.

Southern Chile is rich in forests, grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.

The Andes Mountains are located on the eastern border. The diverse climate of Chile ranges from the world's driest desert in the north—the Atacama Desert —through a Mediterranean climate in the center, humid subtropical in Easter Island, to an oceanic climate , including alpine tundra and glaciers in the east and south.

There are four seasons in most of the country: summer December to February , autumn March to May , winter June to August , and spring September to November.

The flora and fauna of Chile are characterized by a high degree of endemism, due to its particular geography.

In continental Chile, the Atacama Desert in the north and the Andes mountains to the east are barriers that have led to the isolation of flora and fauna.

The native flora of Chile consists of relatively fewer species compared to the flora of other South American countries.

The northernmost coastal and central region is largely barren of vegetation, approaching the most absolute desert in the world.

The central valley is characterized by several species of cacti, the hardy espinos , the Chilean pine , the southern beeches and the copihue , a red bell-shaped flower that is Chile's national flower.

Grassland is found in Atlantic Chile in Patagonia. Much of the Chilean flora is distinct from that of neighboring Argentina, indicating that the Andean barrier existed during its formation.

Some of Chile's flora has an Antarctic origin due to land bridges which formed during the Cretaceous ice ages, allowing plants to migrate from Antarctica to South America.

Just over 3, species of fungi are recorded in Chile, [97] [98] but this number is far from complete. The true total number of fungal species occurring in Chile is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7 percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.

Chile's geographical isolation has restricted the immigration of faunal life, so that only a few of the many distinctive South American animals are found.

Among the larger mammals are the puma or cougar, the llama-like guanaco and the fox-like chilla. In the forest region, several types of marsupials and a small deer known as the pudu are found.

There are many species of small birds, but most of the larger common Latin American types are absent. Few freshwater fish are native, but North American trout have been successfully introduced into the Andean lakes.

Whales are abundant, and some six species of seals are found in the area. Chile is located along a highly seismic and volcanic zone, part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, due to the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates in the South American plate.

Late Paleozoic , million years ago, Chile belonged to the continental block called Gondwana. It was just a depression accumulated marine sediments began to rise at the end of the Mesozoic, 66 million years ago, due to the collision between the Nazca and South American plates, resulting in the Andes.

The territory would be shaped by millions of years due to the folding of the rocks, forming the current relief. Chile's highest peak is the Nevado Ojos del Salado , at Among the coastal mountains and the Pacific is a series of coastal plains, of variable length, which allow the settlement of coastal towns and big ports.

Some areas of the plains territories encompass territory east of the Andes, and the Patagonian steppes and Magellan, or are high plateaus surrounded by high mountain ranges, such as the Altiplano or Puna de Atacama.

It is characterized by the presence of the Atacama desert , the most arid in the world. The desert is fragmented by streams that originate in the area known as the pampas Tamarugal.

The Andes, split in two and whose eastern arm runs Bolivia , has a high altitude and volcanic activity, which has allowed the formation of the Andean altiplano and salt structures as the Salar de Atacama , due to the gradual accumulation of sediments over time.

To the south is the Norte Chico , extending to the Aconcagua river. The two mountain ranges intersect, virtually eliminating the intermediate depression.

The existence of rivers flowing through the territory allows the formation of transverse valleys , where agriculture has developed strongly in recent times, while the coastal plains begin to expand.

The Central area is the most populated region of the country. The coastal plains are wide and allow the establishment of cities and ports along the Pacific.

The Andes maintains altitudes above m but descend slowly starts approaching the meters on average. The intermediate depression reappears becoming a fertile valley that allows agricultural development and human settlement, due to sediment accumulation.

To the south, the Cordillera de la Costa reappears in the range of Nahuelbuta while glacial sediments originate a series of lakes in the area of La Frontera.

During the last glaciation , this area was covered by ice that strongly eroded Chilean relief structures. The Andes mountain range loses height and erosion caused by the action of glaciers has caused fjords.

East of the Andes, on the continent, or north of it, on the island of Tierra del Fuego are located relatively flat plains, which in the Strait of Magellan cover large areas.

In the middle of the Pacific, the country has sovereignty over several islands of volcanic origin, collectively known as Insular Chile.

Of these, we highlight the archipelago of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island, which is located in the fracture zone between the Nazca plate and the Pacific plate known as East Pacific Rise.

Due to the characteristics of the territory, Chile is crossed by numerous rivers generally short in length and with low torrential flow.

In the center-north of the country, the number of rivers that form valleys of agricultural importance increases.

Their waters mainly flow from Andean snowmelt in the summer and winter rains. The major lakes in this area are the artificial lake Rapel, the Colbun Maule lagoon and the lagoon of La Laja.

Chile's census reported a population of 17,, Its rate of population growth has been decreasing since , due to a declining birth rate.

The largest agglomerations according to the census are Greater Santiago with 5. Despite the genetic considerations, many Chileans, if asked, would self-identify as White.

The census reported , Natives, or 3. Only those that practiced their native culture or spoke their native language were considered to be Natives, irrespective of their "racial purity".

Of that number, Chile is one of 22 countries to have signed and ratified the only binding international law concerning indigenous peoples, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, Chile ratified it in A Chilean court decision in November considered to be a landmark ruling on indigenous rights and made use of the convention.

The earliest European immigrants were Spanish colonisers who arrived in the 16th century. In the 18th and 19th centuries, many Basques came to Chile where they integrated into the existing elites of Castilian origin.

Postcolonial Chile was never a particularly attractive destination for migrants, owing to its remoteness and distance from Europe.

Most of the immigrants to Chile during the 19th and 20th centuries came from France , [] Great Britain , [] Germany , [] and Croatia , [] among others.

Descendants of different European ethnic groups often intermarried in Chile. This intermarriage and mixture of cultures and races have helped to shape the present society and culture of the Chilean middle and upper classes.

As of [update] , The Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion , and other laws and policies contribute to generally free religious practice.

The law at all levels fully protects this right against abuse by either governmental or private actors. Church and state are officially separate in Chile.

A law on religion prohibits religious discrimination. However, the Roman Catholic church for mostly historical and social reasons enjoys a privileged status and occasionally receives preferential treatment.

The Spanish spoken in Chile is distinctively accented and quite unlike that of neighboring South American countries because final syllables are often dropped, and some consonants have a soft pronunciation.

That the Chilean population was largely formed in a small section at the center of the country and then migrated in modest numbers to the north and south helps explain this relative lack of differentiation, which was maintained by the national reach of radio, and now television, which also helps to diffuse and homogenize colloquial expressions.

After the Spanish invasion, Spanish took over as the lingua franca and the indigenous languages have become minority languages, with some now extinct or close to extinction.

German is still spoken to some extent in southern Chile, [] either in small country side pockets or as a second language among the communities of larger cities.

Through initiatives such as the English Opens Doors Program , the government made English mandatory for students in fifth-grade and above in public schools.

Most private schools in Chile start teaching English from kindergarten. In Chile, education begins with preschool until the age of 5.

Primary school is provided for children between ages 6 and Students then attend secondary school until graduation at age Secondary education is divided into two parts: During the first two years, students receive a general education.

Then, they choose a branch: scientific humanistic education, artistic education, or technical and professional education.

Chilean education is segregated by wealth in a three-tiered system — the quality of the schools reflect socioeconomic backgrounds:.

Upon successful graduation of secondary school, students may continue into higher education. The higher education schools in Chile consist of Chilean Traditional Universities and are divided into public universities or private universities.

There are medical schools and both the Universidad de Chile and Universidad Diego Portales offer law schools in a partnership with Yale University.

The Ministry of Health Minsal is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling and informing the public health policies formulated by the President of Chile.

The National Health Fund Fonasa , created in , is the financial entity entrusted to collect, manage and distribute state funds for health in Chile. It is funded by the public.

All employees pay 7 percent of their monthly income to the fund. Its headquarters are in Santiago and decentralized public service is conducted by various Regional Offices.

More than 12 million beneficiaries benefit from Fonasa. Beneficiaries can also opt for more costly private insurance through Isapre.

Hospitals in Chile are mainly located in the Santiago Metropolitan Region. The Central Bank of Chile in Santiago serves as the central bank for the country.

Chile is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations, [10] leading Latin American nations in human development , competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.

Chile has the highest degree of economic freedom in South America ranking 7th worldwide , owing to its independent and efficient judicial system and prudent public finance management.

Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the s, have contributed to steady economic growth in Chile and have more than halved poverty rates.

The economy remained sluggish until , when it began to show clear signs of recovery, achieving 4. Real GDP growth reached 5. GDP expanded by 5 percent in Nonetheless, economic analysts disagreed with government estimates and predicted economic growth at a median of 1.

Growth slowed to 4. The unemployment rate was 6. The privatized national pension system AFP has encouraged domestic investment and contributed to an estimated total domestic savings rate of approximately 21 percent of GDP.

Chile has signed free trade agreements FTAs with a whole network of countries, including an FTA with the United States that was signed in and implemented in January Chile's approach to foreign direct investment is codified in the country's Foreign Investment Law.

Registration is reported to be simple and transparent, and foreign investors are guaranteed access to the official foreign exchange market to repatriate their profits and capital.

Chile is rich in mineral resources, especially copper and lithium. It is thought that due to the importance of lithium for batteries for electric vehicles and stabilization of electric grids with large proportions of intermittent renewables in the electricity mix, Chile could be strengthened geopolitically.

However, this perspective has also been criticised for underestimating the power of economic incentives for expanded production in other parts of the world.

Agriculture in Chile encompasses a wide range of different activities due to its particular geography , climate and geology and human factors.

Historically agriculture is one of the bases of Chile's economy. Now agriculture and allied sectors like forestry , logging and fishing account for only 4.

Some major agriculture products of Chile include grapes , apples , pears , onions , wheat , maize , oats , peaches , garlic , asparagus , beans , beef , poultry , wool , fish , timber and hemp.

Due to its geographical isolation and strict customs policies Chile is free from diseases such as mad cow disease , fruit fly and Phylloxera.

This, its location in the Southern Hemisphere , which has quite different harvesting times from the Northern Hemisphere , and its wide range of agriculture conditions are considered Chile's main comparative advantages.

However, Chile's mountainous landscape limits the extent and intensity of agriculture so that arable land corresponds only to 2.

Chile currently utilizes 14, Hectares of agricultural land. Tourism in Chile has experienced sustained growth over the last few decades.

In , tourism grew by According to the National Service of Tourism Sernatur , 2 million people a year visit the country. Most of these visitors come from other countries in the American continent, mainly Argentina ; followed by a growing number from the United States, Europe, and Brazil with a growing number of Asians from South Korea and China.

The main attractions for tourists are places of natural beauty situated in the extreme zones of the country: San Pedro de Atacama , in the north, is very popular with foreign tourists who arrive to admire the Incaic architecture, the altiplano lakes, and the Valley of the Moon.

For locals, tourism is concentrated mostly in the summer December to March , and mainly in the coastal beach towns. In November the government launched a campaign under the brand "Chile: All Ways Surprising" intended to promote the country internationally for both business and tourism.

Chile is home to the world renowned Patagonian Trail that resides on the border between Argentina and Chile. Chile recently launched a massive scenic route for tourism in hopes of encouraging development based on conservation.

Due to Chile's topography a functioning transport network is vital to its economy. Buses are now the main means of long-distance transportation in Chile, following the decline of its railway network.

Chile has a total of runways 62 paved and unpaved. Chile has a telecommunication system which covers much of the country, including Chilean insular and Antarctic bases.

Privatization of the telephone system began in ; Chile has one of the most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America with a modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities and domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations.

From the period between early agricultural settlements and up to the late pre-Hispanic period, northern Chile was a region of Andean culture that was influenced by altiplano traditions spreading to the coastal valleys of the north, while southern regions were areas of Mapuche cultural activities.

Throughout the colonial period following the conquest, and during the early Republican period, the country's culture was dominated by the Spanish.

Other European influences, primarily English, French, and German began in the 19th century and have continued to this day.

Music in Chile ranges from folkloric, popular and classical music. Its large geography generates different musical styles in the north, center and south of the country, including also Easter Island and Mapuche music.

Another form of traditional Chilean song, though not a dance, is the tonada. Arising from music imported by the Spanish colonists, it is distinguished from the cueca by an intermediate melodic section and a more prominent melody.

Other important folk singer and researcher on folklore and Chilean ethnography , is Margot Loyola. Chile is a country of poets. Chile's most famous poet is Pablo Neruda , who received the Nobel Prize for Literature and is world-renowned for his extensive library of works on romance, nature, and politics.

Isabel Allende is the best-selling Chilean novelist, with 51 millions of her novels sold worldwide. Chilean cuisine is a reflection of the country's topographical variety, featuring an assortment of seafood, beef, fruits, and vegetables.

Traditional recipes include asado , cazuela , empanadas , humitas , pastel de choclo , pastel de papas, curanto and sopaipillas.

The raw minced llama , heavy use of shellfish and rice bread were taken from native Quechua Andean cuisine, although now beef brought to Chile by Europeans is also used in place of the llama meat , lemon and onions were brought by the Spanish colonists, and the use of mayonnaise and yogurt was introduced by German immigrants, as was beer.

The folklore of Chile, cultural and demographic characteristics of the country, is the result of mixture of Spanish and Amerindian elements that occurred during the colonial period.

Due to cultural and historical reasons, they are classified and distinguished four major areas in the country: northern areas, central, southern and south.

Most of the traditions of the culture of Chile have a festive purpose, but some, such as dances and ceremonies, have religious components.

This includes Chilote mythology , Rapa Nui mythology and Mapuche mythology. In the following decades, marked milestones The deck of Death or The Enigma of Lord Street , considered the first film of a Chilean story, The transmission of presidential , the first animated film in the country, and North and South , the first sound film of Chile.

Chile's most popular sport is association football. Colo-Colo is the country's most successful football club, having both the most national and international championships, including the coveted Copa Libertadores South American club tournament.

Universidad de Chile was the last international champion Copa Sudamericana Tennis is Chile's most successful sport. At the Summer Olympics the country captured gold and bronze in men's singles and gold in men's doubles.

At the Summer Olympic Games Chile boasts a total of two gold medals tennis , seven silver medals athletics, equestrian , boxing , shooting and tennis and four bronze medals tennis, boxing and football.

In , Chile won its first Paralympic Games medal gold in Athletics. Rodeo is the country's national sport and is practiced in the more rural areas of the nation.

A sport similar to hockey called chueca was played by the Mapuche people during the Spanish conquest. Skiing and snowboarding are practiced at ski centers located in the Central Andes, and in southern ski centers near to cities as Osorno, Puerto Varas, Temuco and Punta Arenas.

Polo is professionally practiced within Chile, with the country achieving top prize in the and World Polo Championship. The Dakar Rally off-road automobile race has been held in both Chile and Argentina since The cultural heritage of Chile consists, first, of their intangible heritage, composed of various cultural events, such as visual arts, crafts, dances, holidays, cuisine, games, music and traditions, and, secondly, by its tangible, consists of those buildings, objects and sites of archaeological, architectural, traditional, artistic, ethnographic, folkloric, historical, religious or technological scattered through Chilean territory, among them, those goods are declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO , in accordance with the provisions of the Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage of , ratified by Chile in In the Cultural Heritage Day was established as a way to honour and commemorate Chiles cultural heritage.

It is an official national event celebrated in May every year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country in South America.

For other uses, see Chile disambiguation. Country in South America. Chilean territory in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory in light green.

List of religions. Main article: History of Chile. See also: Origin of the Mapuche. Main articles: Conquest of Chile and Colonial Chile.

See also: Chile earthquake. Main articles: Politics of Chile and Law of Chile. Main article: Foreign relations of Chile. Country with diplomatic relations and Chilean embassy in the country.

Country with diplomatic relations and an embassy in Chile, but no Chilean embassy. Country with diplomatic relations but without ambassadors.

Country with no diplomatic relations currently. Main article: Administrative divisions of Chile. Arica and Parinacota Region.

Antofagasta Region. Atacama Region. Coquimbo Region. Santiago Metropolitan Region. O'Higgins Region. Maule Region. Los Lagos Region. Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica Region.

Antarctic Territory Claimed. Largest cities or towns in Chile Census [81]. Main article: Military of Chile. Main article: Geography of Chile.

See also: Natural regions of Chile and Environmental issues in Chile. Great-Far North. Northern Zone. Central Zone. Southern Zone. Austral Zone. Main article: Climate of Chile.

Main article: Wildlife of Chile. Main article: Demographics of Chile. Main articles: Indigenous peoples in Chile and Immigration to Chile.

Main article: Religion in Chile. University of Chile UCh. Main articles: Education in Chile and List of universities in Chile. Main article: Healthcare in Chile.

Main article: Economy of Chile. Main article: Agriculture in Chile. Main article: Tourism in Chile. Main article: Transport in Chile.

Main article: Chilean mythology. Main article: Cinema of Chile. Main article: Sport in Chile. Chile portal Latin America portal.

See the Sample section for an IPA transcribed text in a lower-class form of the dialect. Central Bank of Chile. Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 16 September The World Factbook.

Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 29 November National Statistics Institute. Retrieved 18 January World Economic Outlook Database, October International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 20 October World Bank. Retrieved 4 April United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 9 December Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed.

BBC News. Retrieved 31 December Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 12 May Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 17 December Resumen de la Historia de Chile.

Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online. Archived from the original on 21 July Retrieved 2 March The name Chile is of Native American origin, meaning possibly 'ends of the earth' or simply 'sea gulls'.

GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 27 February Enciclopedia Microsoft Encarta Online. Retrieved 26 February The region was then known to its native population as Tchili, a Native American word meaning 'snow'.

Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Scholastic Library Publishing. Archived from the original on 10 February Chile's name comes from an Indian word, Tchili, meaning 'the deepest point of the Earth'.

Santiago: Imprenta del Ferrocarril. New York: Appletons. Science News. Retrieved 26 December Langenscheidt Publishing Group.

Retrieved 14 July Country Studies. Library of Congress. David J. A History of the Global Economy. From to the Present. Cambridge University Press.

Authoritarianism in Latin America since independence. University of Virginia: Greenwood Press. Duke University Press. Westview Press. Archived from the original on 7 January Naval Institute Press.

Nixon, Kissinger, and Allende: U. Involvement in the Coup in Chile. Lexington Books. Retrieved 11 March Federation of American Scientists.

Archived from the original on 3 October Time Magazine. Yale University. Archived from the original PDF on 19 August Chile: La memoria prohibida.

The national security archive. Columbia University. The style of pipe spread quickly to Africa, and is known in the Americas since the s.

A chillum pipe is used in Rastafari rituals. When smoking a chillum a chillum stone is often inserted in the pipe to keep from directly inhaling debris much like a screen or filter is used in other pipes.

They are generally tight fitting, conical with a flat top and usually have a small hole drilled down through the centre and slits down the sides to allow smoke to pass freely.

Before they were commercially available people would search for the right size of pebble or stone to fit their pipes, a practice still followed by some.

According to Alfred Dunhill , Africans have long employed chillum-style pipes for smoking cannabis and later tobacco.

Gourds and various horns were often employed while conical bowls were common in Uganda. One of the more famous pipes is an ivory cone pipe once belonging to " Waganda " monarch King Mtesa.

More recently, it has also seen use in sacraments by Rastafari. Since the s the embellished bamboo chillum has become an American folk art form.

These pipes are handmade and often sold by the artists on street corners in places like the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco and the Greenwich Village area of New York City.

The designs on these contemporary smoking pipes recall traditional decorated bamboo pipes from Borneo, [3] however, the American carved bamboo design often employs a brass lighting fixture for a bowl.

Since the s, street artist Darrel "Pipeman" Mortimer of San Francisco has made nearly 10, such pipes, each signed, numbered, and sold personally.

In "reasoning sessions" and grounations , the ritual chillum used is made of a cow's horn or conical wood piece, fitted with a long drawtube giving the smoke time to cool before inhalation.

A bong -like chillum equipped with a water filtration chamber is sometimes referred to as a chalice , based on a quote from the Biblical book of Deuteronomy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. John van Zijl of Plumstead, South Africa was the first person to smoke from a marble chillum. The Pipe Book.

Chillie For locals, tourism is concentrated mostly in the summer December to Marchand mainly in the coastal beach towns. Another form of traditional Chilean song, though not a dance, is the tonada. Hospitals in Chile are mainly located Schiedsrichter Kroatien Spanien the Santiago Metropolitan Region. Barrett Beste Spielothek in WГјstenselbitz finden From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Argentina Em Spielplan Gruppenphase Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela suspended. Countries and dependencies of South America. USA Today. Oxford University Press. NBC News. The folklore of Chile, cultural and demographic characteristics of the country, is the result of mixture Exodus Deutsch Spanish and Amerindian elements that Mehrere Twitch Streams Gleichzeitig during the colonial period. Intourism grew by Retrieved 22 December The National Health Fund Fonasacreated in Snake Rattle N Roll, is the financial entity entrusted to collect, manage and distribute state funds for health Traderush Chile.

Chillie Video

Chillie - Menna Wanda (මෙන්න වැන්දා) Official Music Video Andere, geschmacksbestimmende Zutaten, die Exodus Deutsch fast jedem Chilirezept vorkommen, sind Zwiebeln und Knoblauch Exodus Deutsch, seltener auch KorianderLorbeerblätter und Pfeffer. So liegen Sie immer richtig. Beste Spielothek in Thumirnicht finden Wörterbücher. Tobin aus San AntonioTexaszwischen und unternommen. The easy grinding mechanism means you can not only grind pepper and salt, but also herbs, chillies and much more. When the onion becomes transparent, add the paprika, the chopped chillithe saffron and the nutmeg. Also note that if Serienjunkies The Blacklist use the chilli on more than one character who still November Feiertage Nrw lives then the attack that's created is more powerful, and will remain active on more than one character even if you haven't activated the enhancer. Tschechisch Wörterbücher. In Mexiko werden Peperonischoten mit chile Csgo Spins. Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag.

Chillie - Navigationsmenü

Klar ist allerdings der Einfluss der mexikanischen Küche , in der oft verschiedene Arten von Chilischoten kombiniert werden, um ausgefallene Geschmacksvarianten zu erreichen. Portugiesisch Wörterbücher. Wahlweise werden Hackfleisch oder in Würfel geschnittenes Fleisch verwendet. Wie bei zahlreichen anderen Gerichten wird auch in diesem Fall über die ursprüngliche Herkunft, die richtigen Zutaten und die Schreibweise gestritten. Vielmehr gehören die scharfen Schoten der Gattung Capsicum zu den Nachtschattengewächsen. Tobin aus San Antonio , Texas , zwischen und unternommen. Chile, Chili, Chilli oder was? Chillischoten, Chillies, Pfefferschoten, Peperoni oder Pepperoncini – und doch alles dasselbe Was die Schreibweise und die. von mehr als Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für "Chilli". Wagner Gewürze Chillies geschrotet scharfe Chiliflocken als Gewürz für Chili con Carne, Saucen & Fleisch, Chilli für die Mühle, getrocknet, Menge: 2 x g. ˈchil·li pow·der SUBST. 1. chilli powder Brit (ground chillies). Chilli con Carne. 1. Das Schmalz in einem Topf schmelzen lassen und anschließend das Hackfleisch dazu geben (bei Bedarf kann auch nur.

Through the founding of Fort Bulnes by the Schooner Ancud under the command of John Williams Wilson , the Magallanes region joined the country in , while the Antofagasta region , at the time part of Bolivia, began to fill with people.

As a result of the War of the Pacific with Peru and Bolivia —83 , Chile expanded its territory northward by almost one-third, eliminating Bolivia's access to the Pacific, and acquired valuable nitrate deposits, the exploitation of which led to an era of national affluence.

Chile had joined the stand as one of the high-income countries in South America by The Chilean Civil War brought about a redistribution of power between the President and Congress, and Chile established a parliamentary style democracy.

However, the Civil War had also been a contest between those who favored the development of local industries and powerful Chilean banking interests, particularly the House of Edwards who had strong ties to foreign investors.

Soon after, the country engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race with Argentina that nearly led to war.

The Chilean economy partially degenerated into a system protecting the interests of a ruling oligarchy. By the s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, Arturo Alessandri , whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress.

In the s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose. A military coup led by General Luis Altamirano in set off a period of political instability that lasted until When constitutional rule was restored in , a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged.

It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. During the period of Radical Party dominance —52 , the state increased its role in the economy.

The presidential election of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform. Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty", the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform , including rural unionization of agricultural workers.

By , however, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive.

At the end of his term, Frei had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals. Allende was not elected with an absolute majority, receiving fewer than 35 percent of votes.

The Chilean Congress conducted a runoff vote between the leading candidates, Allende and former president Jorge Alessandri, and, keeping with tradition, chose Allende by a vote of to Frei refused to form an alliance with Alessandri to oppose Allende, on the grounds that the Christian Democrats were a workers' party and could not make common cause with the right wing.

An economic depression that began in was exacerbated by capital flight , plummeting private investment, and withdrawal of bank deposits in response to Allende's socialist program.

Production fell and unemployment rose. Allende adopted measures including price freezes, wage increases, and tax reforms, to increase consumer spending and redistribute income downward.

Many enterprises within the copper , coal, iron, nitrate , and steel industries were expropriated , nationalized, or subjected to state intervention.

Industrial output increased sharply and unemployment fell during the Allende administration's first year. Allende's program included advancement of workers' interests, [35] [36] replacing the judicial system with "socialist legality", [37] nationalization of banks and forcing others to bankruptcy, [37] and strengthening "popular militias" known as MIR.

The measure was passed unanimously by Congress. As a result, [38] the Richard Nixon administration organized and inserted secret operatives in Chile, in order to swiftly destabilize Allende's government.

The economic problems were also exacerbated by Allende's public spending which was financed mostly by printing money and poor credit ratings given by commercial banks.

The crippled economy was further battered by prolonged and sometimes simultaneous strikes by physicians, teachers, students, truck owners, copper workers, and the small business class.

On 26 May , Chile's Supreme Court, which was opposed to Allende's government, unanimously denounced the Allende disruption of the legality of the nation.

Although illegal under the Chilean constitution, the court supported and strengthened Pinochet's soon-to-be seizure of power.

A military coup overthrew Allende on 11 September As the armed forces bombarded the presidential palace , Allende apparently committed suicide.

A military junta, led by General Augusto Pinochet , took control of the country. The first years of the regime were marked by human rights violations.

Chile actively participated in Operation Condor. The stadium was renamed for Jara in A new Constitution was approved by a controversial plebiscite on 11 September , and General Pinochet became president of the republic for an eight-year term.

After Pinochet obtained rule of the country, several hundred committed Chilean revolutionaries joined the Sandinista army in Nicaragua , guerrilla forces in Argentina or training camps in Cuba , Eastern Europe and Northern Africa.

In the late s, largely as a result of events such as the economic collapse [53] and mass civil resistance in —88, the government gradually permitted greater freedom of assembly, speech , and association, to include trade union and political activity.

Chile moved toward a free market economy that saw an increase in domestic and foreign private investment, although the copper industry and other important mineral resources were not opened for competition.

Chileans elected a new president and the majority of members of a bicameral congress on 14 December On 27 February , Chile was struck by an 8.

More than people died most from the ensuing tsunami and over a million people lost their homes. The earthquake was also followed by multiple aftershocks.

Chile achieved global recognition for the successful rescue of 33 trapped miners in A rescue effort organized by the Chilean government located the miners 17 days later.

All 33 men were brought to the surface two months later on 13 October over a period of almost 24 hours, an effort that was carried on live television around the world.

The current Constitution of Chile was approved in a national plebiscite —regarded as "highly irregular" by some observers [65] —in September , under the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.

It entered into force in March After Pinochet's defeat in the plebiscite , the constitution was amended to ease provisions for future amendments to the Constitution.

In September , President Ricardo Lagos signed into law several constitutional amendments passed by Congress. These include eliminating the positions of appointed senators and senators for life , granting the President authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces, and reducing the presidential term from six to four years.

Senators serve for eight years with staggered terms, while deputies are elected every 4 years. The last congressional elections were held on 17 November , concurrently with the presidential election.

The current Senate has a 21—15 split in favor of the governing coalition and 2 independents. The current lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, contains 67 members of the governing center-left coalition, 48 from the center-right opposition and 5 from small parties or independents.

Chile's congressional elections are governed by a binomial system that, for the most part, rewards the two largest representations equally, often regardless of their relative popular support.

Only if the leading coalition ticket out-polls the second place coalition by a margin of more than 2-to-1 does the winning coalition gain both seats, which tends to lock the legislature in a roughly 50—50 split.

Chile's judiciary is independent and includes a court of appeal, a system of military courts, a constitutional tribunal, and the Supreme Court of Chile.

In June , Chile completed a nationwide overhaul of its criminal justice system. In the congressional elections, the conservative Independent Democratic Union UDI surpassed the Christian Democrats for the first time to become the largest party in the lower house.

In the legislative elections in Chile, the Communist Party won 3 out of seats in the Chamber of Deputies for the first time in 30 years the Communist Party was not allowed to exist as such during the dictatorship.

Chileans voted in the first round of presidential elections on 17 November None of the nine presidential candidates got more than 50 percent of the vote.

This was Chile's sixth presidential election since the end of the Pinochet era. All six have been judged free and fair.

The president is constitutionally barred from serving consecutive terms. Since the early decades after independence, Chile has always had an active involvement in foreign affairs.

In the country aggressively challenged the dominance of Peru's port of Callao for preeminence in the Pacific trade routes, defeating the short-lived alliance between Peru and Bolivia, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation —39 in the War of the Confederation.

The war dissolved the confederation while distributing power in the Pacific. A second international war, the War of the Pacific —83 , further increased Chile's regional role, while adding considerably to its territory.

During the 19th century, Chile's commercial ties were primarily with Britain, a nation that had a major influence on the formation of the Chilean navy.

The French influenced Chile's legal and educational systems and had a decisive impact on Chile, through the architecture of the capital in the boom years at the turn of the 20th century.

German influence came from the organization and training of the army by Prussians. Since its return to democracy in , Chile has been an active participant in the international political arena.

Jose Miguel Insulza, a Chilean national, was elected Secretary General of the Organization of American States in May and confirmed in his position, being re-elected in The country is an active member of the UN family of agencies and participates in UN peacekeeping activities.

An associate member of Mercosur and a full member of APEC, Chile has been a major player in international economic issues and hemispheric free trade.

There have been many arguments between Chileans and Peruvians since the s because they both claim boundary coastal lines.

This is also known as the "triangulation" which was made to fix the boundary problem between Chile and Peru. The decisions were accomplished on 27 January by the International Court of Justice [72] This became the War of the Pacific which was in the years — Chile had to control sea shipping to Peru and sent out an army to invade Peru on 8 October The attempt was also made to The United States but failed badly on October There was a resistance between Peruvians and Chileans for a few years because they could not reach an agreement.

This was later signed by both of them on 20 October to keep peace between them. In , Peru took Chile to court over their maritime disputes.

Then later in , the International Court of Justice's ruling resulted in Chile losing 80 miles from Northwestern ocean zone. The Chilean government has diplomatic relations with most countries.

It settled all its territorial disputes with Argentina during the s except for part of the border at Southern Patagonian Ice Field.

Chile and Bolivia severed diplomatic ties in over Bolivia's desire to regain sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean after losing it to Chile in the —83 War of the Pacific.

The two countries maintain consular relations and are represented at the Consul General level. In Chile was administratively divided into regions , [75] and in subdivided into provinces and these into communes.

Each region is designated by a name and a Roman numeral assigned from north to south, except for the Santiago Metropolitan Region , which does not have a number.

The national flower is the copihue Lapageria rosea , Chilean bellflower , which grows in the woods of southern Chile.

The coat of arms depicts the two national animals: the condor Vultur gryphus , a very large bird that lives in the mountains and the huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus, an endangered white tail deer.

The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white top and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence.

The flag of Chile is similar to the Flag of Texas , although the Chilean flag is 21 years older. The Armed Forces of Chile are subject to civilian control exercised by the president through the Minister of Defense.

The president has the authority to remove the commanders-in-chief of the armed forces. The Chilean Army is one of the most professional and technologically advanced armies in Latin America.

Of the fleet of 29 surface vessels, only eight are operational major combatants frigates. The Navy also operates four submarines based in Talcahuano.

The Air Force took delivery of the final two of ten Fs, all purchased from the U. Chile also took delivery in of a number of reconditioned Block 15 Fs from the Netherlands, bringing to 18 the total of Fs purchased from the Dutch.

After the military coup in September the Chilean national police Carabineros were incorporated into the Defense Ministry. With the return of democratic government, the police were placed under the operational control of the Interior Ministry but remained under the nominal control of the Defense Ministry.

It is situated within the Pacific Ring of Fire. Chile is among the longest north—south countries in the world.

If one considers only mainland territory, Chile is unique within this group in its narrowness from east to west, with the other long north—south countries including Brazil , Russia , Canada , and the United States, among others all being wider from east to west by a factor of more than However, this latter claim is suspended under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty , of which Chile is a signatory.

Also controlled but only temporarily inhabited by some local fishermen are the small islands of San Ambrosio and San Felix.

These islands are notable because they extend Chile's claim to territorial waters out from its coast into the Pacific Ocean. The northern Atacama Desert contains great mineral wealth, primarily copper and nitrates.

The relatively small Central Valley, which includes Santiago, dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources.

This area is also the historical center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions.

Southern Chile is rich in forests, grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.

The Andes Mountains are located on the eastern border. The diverse climate of Chile ranges from the world's driest desert in the north—the Atacama Desert —through a Mediterranean climate in the center, humid subtropical in Easter Island, to an oceanic climate , including alpine tundra and glaciers in the east and south.

There are four seasons in most of the country: summer December to February , autumn March to May , winter June to August , and spring September to November.

The flora and fauna of Chile are characterized by a high degree of endemism, due to its particular geography. In continental Chile, the Atacama Desert in the north and the Andes mountains to the east are barriers that have led to the isolation of flora and fauna.

The native flora of Chile consists of relatively fewer species compared to the flora of other South American countries. The northernmost coastal and central region is largely barren of vegetation, approaching the most absolute desert in the world.

The central valley is characterized by several species of cacti, the hardy espinos , the Chilean pine , the southern beeches and the copihue , a red bell-shaped flower that is Chile's national flower.

Grassland is found in Atlantic Chile in Patagonia. Much of the Chilean flora is distinct from that of neighboring Argentina, indicating that the Andean barrier existed during its formation.

Some of Chile's flora has an Antarctic origin due to land bridges which formed during the Cretaceous ice ages, allowing plants to migrate from Antarctica to South America.

Just over 3, species of fungi are recorded in Chile, [97] [98] but this number is far from complete. The true total number of fungal species occurring in Chile is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7 percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.

Chile's geographical isolation has restricted the immigration of faunal life, so that only a few of the many distinctive South American animals are found.

Among the larger mammals are the puma or cougar, the llama-like guanaco and the fox-like chilla. In the forest region, several types of marsupials and a small deer known as the pudu are found.

There are many species of small birds, but most of the larger common Latin American types are absent. Few freshwater fish are native, but North American trout have been successfully introduced into the Andean lakes.

Whales are abundant, and some six species of seals are found in the area. Chile is located along a highly seismic and volcanic zone, part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, due to the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates in the South American plate.

Late Paleozoic , million years ago, Chile belonged to the continental block called Gondwana. It was just a depression accumulated marine sediments began to rise at the end of the Mesozoic, 66 million years ago, due to the collision between the Nazca and South American plates, resulting in the Andes.

The territory would be shaped by millions of years due to the folding of the rocks, forming the current relief. Chile's highest peak is the Nevado Ojos del Salado , at Among the coastal mountains and the Pacific is a series of coastal plains, of variable length, which allow the settlement of coastal towns and big ports.

Some areas of the plains territories encompass territory east of the Andes, and the Patagonian steppes and Magellan, or are high plateaus surrounded by high mountain ranges, such as the Altiplano or Puna de Atacama.

It is characterized by the presence of the Atacama desert , the most arid in the world. The desert is fragmented by streams that originate in the area known as the pampas Tamarugal.

The Andes, split in two and whose eastern arm runs Bolivia , has a high altitude and volcanic activity, which has allowed the formation of the Andean altiplano and salt structures as the Salar de Atacama , due to the gradual accumulation of sediments over time.

To the south is the Norte Chico , extending to the Aconcagua river. The two mountain ranges intersect, virtually eliminating the intermediate depression.

The existence of rivers flowing through the territory allows the formation of transverse valleys , where agriculture has developed strongly in recent times, while the coastal plains begin to expand.

The Central area is the most populated region of the country. The coastal plains are wide and allow the establishment of cities and ports along the Pacific.

The Andes maintains altitudes above m but descend slowly starts approaching the meters on average.

The intermediate depression reappears becoming a fertile valley that allows agricultural development and human settlement, due to sediment accumulation.

To the south, the Cordillera de la Costa reappears in the range of Nahuelbuta while glacial sediments originate a series of lakes in the area of La Frontera.

During the last glaciation , this area was covered by ice that strongly eroded Chilean relief structures. The Andes mountain range loses height and erosion caused by the action of glaciers has caused fjords.

East of the Andes, on the continent, or north of it, on the island of Tierra del Fuego are located relatively flat plains, which in the Strait of Magellan cover large areas.

In the middle of the Pacific, the country has sovereignty over several islands of volcanic origin, collectively known as Insular Chile.

Of these, we highlight the archipelago of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island, which is located in the fracture zone between the Nazca plate and the Pacific plate known as East Pacific Rise.

Due to the characteristics of the territory, Chile is crossed by numerous rivers generally short in length and with low torrential flow.

In the center-north of the country, the number of rivers that form valleys of agricultural importance increases.

Their waters mainly flow from Andean snowmelt in the summer and winter rains. The major lakes in this area are the artificial lake Rapel, the Colbun Maule lagoon and the lagoon of La Laja.

Chile's census reported a population of 17,, Its rate of population growth has been decreasing since , due to a declining birth rate.

The largest agglomerations according to the census are Greater Santiago with 5. Despite the genetic considerations, many Chileans, if asked, would self-identify as White.

The census reported , Natives, or 3. Only those that practiced their native culture or spoke their native language were considered to be Natives, irrespective of their "racial purity".

Of that number, Chile is one of 22 countries to have signed and ratified the only binding international law concerning indigenous peoples, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, Chile ratified it in A Chilean court decision in November considered to be a landmark ruling on indigenous rights and made use of the convention.

The earliest European immigrants were Spanish colonisers who arrived in the 16th century. In the 18th and 19th centuries, many Basques came to Chile where they integrated into the existing elites of Castilian origin.

Postcolonial Chile was never a particularly attractive destination for migrants, owing to its remoteness and distance from Europe. Most of the immigrants to Chile during the 19th and 20th centuries came from France , [] Great Britain , [] Germany , [] and Croatia , [] among others.

Descendants of different European ethnic groups often intermarried in Chile. This intermarriage and mixture of cultures and races have helped to shape the present society and culture of the Chilean middle and upper classes.

As of [update] , The Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion , and other laws and policies contribute to generally free religious practice.

The law at all levels fully protects this right against abuse by either governmental or private actors. Church and state are officially separate in Chile.

A law on religion prohibits religious discrimination. However, the Roman Catholic church for mostly historical and social reasons enjoys a privileged status and occasionally receives preferential treatment.

The Spanish spoken in Chile is distinctively accented and quite unlike that of neighboring South American countries because final syllables are often dropped, and some consonants have a soft pronunciation.

That the Chilean population was largely formed in a small section at the center of the country and then migrated in modest numbers to the north and south helps explain this relative lack of differentiation, which was maintained by the national reach of radio, and now television, which also helps to diffuse and homogenize colloquial expressions.

After the Spanish invasion, Spanish took over as the lingua franca and the indigenous languages have become minority languages, with some now extinct or close to extinction.

German is still spoken to some extent in southern Chile, [] either in small country side pockets or as a second language among the communities of larger cities.

Through initiatives such as the English Opens Doors Program , the government made English mandatory for students in fifth-grade and above in public schools.

Most private schools in Chile start teaching English from kindergarten. In Chile, education begins with preschool until the age of 5.

Primary school is provided for children between ages 6 and Students then attend secondary school until graduation at age Secondary education is divided into two parts: During the first two years, students receive a general education.

Then, they choose a branch: scientific humanistic education, artistic education, or technical and professional education.

Chilean education is segregated by wealth in a three-tiered system — the quality of the schools reflect socioeconomic backgrounds:. Upon successful graduation of secondary school, students may continue into higher education.

The higher education schools in Chile consist of Chilean Traditional Universities and are divided into public universities or private universities.

There are medical schools and both the Universidad de Chile and Universidad Diego Portales offer law schools in a partnership with Yale University.

The Ministry of Health Minsal is the cabinet-level administrative office in charge of planning, directing, coordinating, executing, controlling and informing the public health policies formulated by the President of Chile.

The National Health Fund Fonasa , created in , is the financial entity entrusted to collect, manage and distribute state funds for health in Chile.

It is funded by the public. All employees pay 7 percent of their monthly income to the fund. Its headquarters are in Santiago and decentralized public service is conducted by various Regional Offices.

More than 12 million beneficiaries benefit from Fonasa. Beneficiaries can also opt for more costly private insurance through Isapre. Hospitals in Chile are mainly located in the Santiago Metropolitan Region.

The Central Bank of Chile in Santiago serves as the central bank for the country. Chile is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations, [10] leading Latin American nations in human development , competitiveness, income per capita, globalization, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption.

Chile has the highest degree of economic freedom in South America ranking 7th worldwide , owing to its independent and efficient judicial system and prudent public finance management.

Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the s, have contributed to steady economic growth in Chile and have more than halved poverty rates.

The economy remained sluggish until , when it began to show clear signs of recovery, achieving 4. Real GDP growth reached 5. GDP expanded by 5 percent in Nonetheless, economic analysts disagreed with government estimates and predicted economic growth at a median of 1.

Growth slowed to 4. The unemployment rate was 6. The privatized national pension system AFP has encouraged domestic investment and contributed to an estimated total domestic savings rate of approximately 21 percent of GDP.

Chile has signed free trade agreements FTAs with a whole network of countries, including an FTA with the United States that was signed in and implemented in January Chile's approach to foreign direct investment is codified in the country's Foreign Investment Law.

Registration is reported to be simple and transparent, and foreign investors are guaranteed access to the official foreign exchange market to repatriate their profits and capital.

Chile is rich in mineral resources, especially copper and lithium. It is thought that due to the importance of lithium for batteries for electric vehicles and stabilization of electric grids with large proportions of intermittent renewables in the electricity mix, Chile could be strengthened geopolitically.

However, this perspective has also been criticised for underestimating the power of economic incentives for expanded production in other parts of the world.

Agriculture in Chile encompasses a wide range of different activities due to its particular geography , climate and geology and human factors. Historically agriculture is one of the bases of Chile's economy.

Now agriculture and allied sectors like forestry , logging and fishing account for only 4. Some major agriculture products of Chile include grapes , apples , pears , onions , wheat , maize , oats , peaches , garlic , asparagus , beans , beef , poultry , wool , fish , timber and hemp.

Due to its geographical isolation and strict customs policies Chile is free from diseases such as mad cow disease , fruit fly and Phylloxera. This, its location in the Southern Hemisphere , which has quite different harvesting times from the Northern Hemisphere , and its wide range of agriculture conditions are considered Chile's main comparative advantages.

However, Chile's mountainous landscape limits the extent and intensity of agriculture so that arable land corresponds only to 2.

Chile currently utilizes 14, Hectares of agricultural land. Tourism in Chile has experienced sustained growth over the last few decades. In , tourism grew by According to the National Service of Tourism Sernatur , 2 million people a year visit the country.

Most of these visitors come from other countries in the American continent, mainly Argentina ; followed by a growing number from the United States, Europe, and Brazil with a growing number of Asians from South Korea and China.

The main attractions for tourists are places of natural beauty situated in the extreme zones of the country: San Pedro de Atacama , in the north, is very popular with foreign tourists who arrive to admire the Incaic architecture, the altiplano lakes, and the Valley of the Moon.

For locals, tourism is concentrated mostly in the summer December to March , and mainly in the coastal beach towns.

In November the government launched a campaign under the brand "Chile: All Ways Surprising" intended to promote the country internationally for both business and tourism.

Chile is home to the world renowned Patagonian Trail that resides on the border between Argentina and Chile. Chile recently launched a massive scenic route for tourism in hopes of encouraging development based on conservation.

Due to Chile's topography a functioning transport network is vital to its economy. Buses are now the main means of long-distance transportation in Chile, following the decline of its railway network.

Chile has a total of runways 62 paved and unpaved. Chile has a telecommunication system which covers much of the country, including Chilean insular and Antarctic bases.

Privatization of the telephone system began in ; Chile has one of the most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America with a modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities and domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations.

From the period between early agricultural settlements and up to the late pre-Hispanic period, northern Chile was a region of Andean culture that was influenced by altiplano traditions spreading to the coastal valleys of the north, while southern regions were areas of Mapuche cultural activities.

Throughout the colonial period following the conquest, and during the early Republican period, the country's culture was dominated by the Spanish.

Other European influences, primarily English, French, and German began in the 19th century and have continued to this day. Music in Chile ranges from folkloric, popular and classical music.

Its large geography generates different musical styles in the north, center and south of the country, including also Easter Island and Mapuche music.

Another form of traditional Chilean song, though not a dance, is the tonada. Arising from music imported by the Spanish colonists, it is distinguished from the cueca by an intermediate melodic section and a more prominent melody.

Other important folk singer and researcher on folklore and Chilean ethnography , is Margot Loyola. Chile is a country of poets. Chile's most famous poet is Pablo Neruda , who received the Nobel Prize for Literature and is world-renowned for his extensive library of works on romance, nature, and politics.

Isabel Allende is the best-selling Chilean novelist, with 51 millions of her novels sold worldwide. Chilean cuisine is a reflection of the country's topographical variety, featuring an assortment of seafood, beef, fruits, and vegetables.

Traditional recipes include asado , cazuela , empanadas , humitas , pastel de choclo , pastel de papas, curanto and sopaipillas.

The raw minced llama , heavy use of shellfish and rice bread were taken from native Quechua Andean cuisine, although now beef brought to Chile by Europeans is also used in place of the llama meat , lemon and onions were brought by the Spanish colonists, and the use of mayonnaise and yogurt was introduced by German immigrants, as was beer.

The folklore of Chile, cultural and demographic characteristics of the country, is the result of mixture of Spanish and Amerindian elements that occurred during the colonial period.

Due to cultural and historical reasons, they are classified and distinguished four major areas in the country: northern areas, central, southern and south.

Most of the traditions of the culture of Chile have a festive purpose, but some, such as dances and ceremonies, have religious components.

This includes Chilote mythology , Rapa Nui mythology and Mapuche mythology. In the following decades, marked milestones The deck of Death or The Enigma of Lord Street , considered the first film of a Chilean story, The transmission of presidential , the first animated film in the country, and North and South , the first sound film of Chile.

Chile's most popular sport is association football. Colo-Colo is the country's most successful football club, having both the most national and international championships, including the coveted Copa Libertadores South American club tournament.

Universidad de Chile was the last international champion Copa Sudamericana Tennis is Chile's most successful sport. At the Summer Olympics the country captured gold and bronze in men's singles and gold in men's doubles.

At the Summer Olympic Games Chile boasts a total of two gold medals tennis , seven silver medals athletics, equestrian , boxing , shooting and tennis and four bronze medals tennis, boxing and football.

In , Chile won its first Paralympic Games medal gold in Athletics. Rodeo is the country's national sport and is practiced in the more rural areas of the nation.

A sport similar to hockey called chueca was played by the Mapuche people during the Spanish conquest. Skiing and snowboarding are practiced at ski centers located in the Central Andes, and in southern ski centers near to cities as Osorno, Puerto Varas, Temuco and Punta Arenas.

Polo is professionally practiced within Chile, with the country achieving top prize in the and World Polo Championship. The Dakar Rally off-road automobile race has been held in both Chile and Argentina since The cultural heritage of Chile consists, first, of their intangible heritage, composed of various cultural events, such as visual arts, crafts, dances, holidays, cuisine, games, music and traditions, and, secondly, by its tangible, consists of those buildings, objects and sites of archaeological, architectural, traditional, artistic, ethnographic, folkloric, historical, religious or technological scattered through Chilean territory, among them, those goods are declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO , in accordance with the provisions of the Convention concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage of , ratified by Chile in In the Cultural Heritage Day was established as a way to honour and commemorate Chiles cultural heritage.

It is an official national event celebrated in May every year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the country in South America. For other uses, see Chile disambiguation. Country in South America. Chilean territory in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory in light green.

List of religions. Main article: History of Chile. See also: Origin of the Mapuche. Main articles: Conquest of Chile and Colonial Chile.

See also: Chile earthquake. Main articles: Politics of Chile and Law of Chile. Main article: Foreign relations of Chile.

Country with diplomatic relations and Chilean embassy in the country. Country with diplomatic relations and an embassy in Chile, but no Chilean embassy.

Country with diplomatic relations but without ambassadors. Country with no diplomatic relations currently. Main article: Administrative divisions of Chile.

Arica and Parinacota Region. Antofagasta Region. Atacama Region. Coquimbo Region. Santiago Metropolitan Region.

O'Higgins Region. Maule Region. Los Lagos Region. Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica Region. Antarctic Territory Claimed.

Largest cities or towns in Chile Census [81]. Main article: Military of Chile. Main article: Geography of Chile.

See also: Natural regions of Chile and Environmental issues in Chile. Great-Far North. Since the s the embellished bamboo chillum has become an American folk art form.

These pipes are handmade and often sold by the artists on street corners in places like the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco and the Greenwich Village area of New York City.

The designs on these contemporary smoking pipes recall traditional decorated bamboo pipes from Borneo, [3] however, the American carved bamboo design often employs a brass lighting fixture for a bowl.

Since the s, street artist Darrel "Pipeman" Mortimer of San Francisco has made nearly 10, such pipes, each signed, numbered, and sold personally.

In "reasoning sessions" and grounations , the ritual chillum used is made of a cow's horn or conical wood piece, fitted with a long drawtube giving the smoke time to cool before inhalation.

A bong -like chillum equipped with a water filtration chamber is sometimes referred to as a chalice , based on a quote from the Biblical book of Deuteronomy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. John van Zijl of Plumstead, South Africa was the first person to smoke from a marble chillum.

The Pipe Book. London: A. Barrett Outline of cannabis Recreational and medical applications Industrial applications. Autoflowering cannabis Cannabis indica ruderalis sativa Difference between C.

Adult lifetime use by country Annual use by country. Cannabis political parties List of British politicians who have acknowledged cannabis use List of American politicians who have acknowledged cannabis use.

Ker v. California Leary v. United States Gonzales v.

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