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The idea of what exactly constitutes a planet of the solar system has been traditionally the product of historical and cultural consensus.

Ancient sky gazers applied the term planet to the seven celestial bodies that were observed to move appreciably against the background of the apparently fixed stars.

After the idea of an Earth-centred cosmos was dispelled see Copernican system and more distinctions were made about the nature and movement of objects in the sky, the term planet was reserved only for those larger bodies that orbited the Sun.

When the giant bodies Uranus and Neptune were discovered in and , respectively, their obvious kinship with the other known planets left little question regarding their addition to the planetary ranks.

So also, at first, appeared to be the case for Pluto when, during a concerted search for a ninth planet, it was observed in as a seemingly lone object beyond the orbit of Neptune.

After many more Pluto-sized and smaller icy objects were found orbiting beyond Neptune beginning in the s, astronomers recognized that Pluto, far from being unique in its part of the solar system, is almost undoubtedly one of the larger and nearer pieces of this debris, known collectively as the Kuiper belt , that is left over from the formation of the planets.

See also planetesimal. At the same time, it defined a new distinct class of objects called dwarf planets , for which Pluto qualified.

Following the IAU proclamations, many scientists protested the definitions, considering them flawed and unscientific and calling for their reconsideration.

Pluto failed on the third requirement because it orbits partially within, and is considered to be part of, the Kuiper belt.

To be a dwarf planet under the IAU definition, the object must meet the first two conditions described above; in addition, it must not have cleared its neighbourhood, and it must not be a moon of another body.

Pluto falls into this category, as do the asteroid Ceres and the large Kuiper belt object Eris , which was discovered in beyond the orbit of Pluto.

By contrast, Charon , by virtue of its being a moon of Pluto, is not a dwarf planet, even though its diameter is more than half that of Pluto. The ranks of dwarf planets will likely be expanded as other objects known or yet to be discovered are determined to meet the conditions of the definition.

In June the IAU created a new category, plutoids , within the dwarf planet category. Plutoids are dwarf planets that are farther from the Sun than Neptune; that is, they are the largest objects in the Kuiper belt.

Two of the dwarf planets, Pluto and Eris, are plutoids; Ceres, because of its location in the asteroid belt, is not.

Of the eight currently recognized planets of the solar system, the inner four, from Mercury to Mars, are called terrestrial planets ; those from Jupiter to Neptune are called giant planets or Jovian planets.

Between these two main groups is a belt of numerous small bodies called asteroids. After Ceres and other larger asteroids were discovered in the early 19th century, the bodies in this class were also referred to as minor planets or planetoids, but the term asteroid is now used most widely.

The planets and other objects that circle the Sun are thought to have formed when part of an interstellar cloud of gas and dust collapsed under its own gravitational attraction and formed a disk-shaped nebula.

See solar system: Origin of the solar system. Astronomers have long wondered if this process of planetary formation could have accompanied the birth of stars other than the Sun.

Instead, astronomers concentrated on attempting to observe them indirectly through the gravitational effects they exert on their parent stars. After decades of searching for such extrasolar planets , astronomers in the early s indirectly identified three planets circling a pulsar i.

The first discovery of a planet revolving around a star more like the Sun came in with the announcement of the existence of a massive planet orbiting the star 51 Pegasi.

In the first 15 years after these initial discoveries, about planets around other stars were known, and in astronomers obtained the first direct infrared images of what were interpreted to be extrasolar planets.

In size these objects range from a fraction of the mass of Jupiter to more than a dozen times its mass. Astronomers have yet to develop a rigorous, generally accepted definition of planet that will successfully accommodate extrasolar planets and distinguish them from bodies that are more starlike in character e.

Several planets or dwarf planets in the Solar System such as Neptune and Pluto have orbital periods that are in resonance with each other or with smaller bodies this is also common in satellite systems.

All except Mercury and Venus have natural satellites , often called "moons". Earth has one, Mars has two, and the giant planets have numerous moons in complex planetary-type systems.

Many moons of the giant planets have features similar to those on the terrestrial planets and dwarf planets, and some have been studied as possible abodes of life especially Europa.

The four giant planets are also orbited by planetary rings of varying size and complexity. The rings are composed primarily of dust or particulate matter, but can host tiny ' moonlets ' whose gravity shapes and maintains their structure.

Although the origins of planetary rings is not precisely known, they are believed to be the result of natural satellites that fell below their parent planet's Roche limit and were torn apart by tidal forces.

No secondary characteristics have been observed around extrasolar planets. The sub-brown dwarf Cha , which has been described as a rogue planet , is believed to be orbited by a tiny protoplanetary disc [] and the sub-brown dwarf OTS 44 was shown to be surrounded by a substantial protoplanetary disk of at least 10 Earth masses.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the astronomical object. For planets in astrology, see Planets in astrology.

For other uses, see Planet disambiguation. Class of astronomical body directly orbiting a star or stellar remnant. Further information: History of astronomy , Definition of planet , and Timeline of Solar System astronomy.

Main article: Babylonian astronomy. See also: Greek astronomy. Main articles: Indian astronomy and Hindu cosmology. Main articles: Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world and Cosmology in medieval Islam.

See also: Heliocentrism. Main article: IAU definition of planet. See also: List of former planets. See also: Weekday names and Naked-eye planet.

Main article: Nebular hypothesis. Supernova remnant ejecta producing planet-forming material. Solar System — sizes but not distances are to scale.

The Sun and the eight planets of the Solar System. The inner planets , Mercury , Venus , Earth , and Mars.

Main article: Solar System. See also: List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System. Main article: Exoplanet. Main article: Dwarf planet.

Main article: Rogue planet. See also: Five-planet Nice model. Main article: Sub-brown dwarf. Main article: Satellite planet.

Main articles: Orbit and Orbital elements. Main article: Axial tilt. Main article: Clearing the neighbourhood. Main article: Planetary mass.

Main article: Planetary differentiation. Main articles: Atmosphere and Extraterrestrial atmospheres.

See also: Extraterrestrial skies. Main article: Magnetosphere. Main articles: Natural satellite and Planetary ring. Astronomy portal Solar System portal Space portal.

The official definition applies only to the Solar System, whereas the definition applies to planets around other stars. The extrasolar planet issue was deemed too complex to resolve at the IAU conference.

The term "satellite" had already begun to be used to distinguish such bodies from those around which they orbited "primary planets".

International Astronomical Union. Retrieved Archived from the original on Retrieved 10 May The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia.

New York Times. Kubas; J. Beaulieu; M. Dominik; et al. Bibcode : Natur. Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 7 November Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Bibcode : PNAS.. The Library of Congress. Merriam-Webster OnLine. Retrieved 29 June Oxford English Dictionary.

Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Astronomy in China, Korea and Japan Walker ed. The Copernican Revolution. Harvard University Press. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy.

Oxford University Press. In Jack Sasson ed. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. A History of Horoscopic Astrology. Astrological reports to Assyrian kings.

State Archives of Assyria. Helsinki University Press. Part One. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Mare Kõiva; Andres Kuperjanov eds. Electronic Journal of Folklore.

Sachs May 2, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Greek philosophy: Thales to Plato. Macmillan and Co. Journal for the History of Astronomy.

Bibcode : JHA Ptolemy's Almagest. Princeton University Press. O'Connor and E. Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India.

Bibcode : BASI Ragep In Thomas Hockey ed. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Bibcode : eaa.. Razaullah Ansari History of oriental astronomy: proceedings of the joint discussion at the 23rd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, organised by the Commission 41 History of Astronomy , held in Kyoto, August 25—26, Retrieved 11 February The Galileo Project.

Naval Observatory. The Free Press. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Bibcode : PNAS Scientific American.

Bibcode : SciAm. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. IAU Circular. Bibcode : IAUC. Circular No. Archived from the original on June 24, Astrophysical Journal.

Bibcode : ApJ University of California and the Carnegie Institution. Alan Spitzer Finds Cosmic Oddball". The Astrophysical Journal.

Earth Planet. Brown Dwarfs. Bibcode : IAUS.. Astronomical Journal. Bibcode : AJ Science Daily. Los Angeles Times.

The Astronomical Journal. The Beginnings of Western Science 2nd ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Decouverte de deux Nouvelles Planetes autour de Saturne. Sabastien Mabre-Craniusy. Stanford news. The Friesian School. Aeon Press. Greek Mythography in the Roman World.

University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 7 February Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. Retrieved 6 February Online Etymology Dictionary.

Retrieved 23 August Encyclopaedia of Islam Second ed. Moon-o-theism, Volume I of II. Yoel Natan. Grazer Morgenländischen Symposion 23—27 September Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Bibcode : Icar.. Bibcode : exop. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Bibcode : PhDT Lay summary — Kenyon, Scott J. Personal web page.

Bibcode : Icar Bibcode : Sci Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Sheppard Carnegie Institution for Science. The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia.

Retrieved 1 August February 26, Retrieved February 26, Astrobiology Magazine. Alan; Levison, Harold F. See p. Retrieved January 26, Spitzer Space Telescope Newsroom.

Archived from the original on July 11, Retrieved 22 February Perets, M. Anderson; Hellier, C. Manual of Astronomy: A Text Book. Chaos And Stability in Planetary Systems.

New York: Springer. The Astrophysics Spectator. Visual binary stars". Celestial Mechanics. Bergstralh, J.

Uranus and Neptune. CP — Springer New York. A 02—90 1 : — Astrophysics and Space Science. California Institute of Technology.

Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Bibcode : PASP.. Department of Physics, University of Oregon.

Jupiter and Saturn. New York: Chelsea House. December Planetary and Space Science. University of Arizona Press, pp. Saunders College Publishing.

Lay summary — Center for Astrophysics press release Space Telescope Science Institute. Lay summary — NASA press release Encyclopedia of the Solar System.

Academic Press. New Scientist Print Edition. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. Bibcode : DPS The Solar System Third ed.

Solar System. Comets Dwarf planets possible Gravitationally rounded objects Minor planets Natural satellites Solar System models Solar System objects by size by discovery date.

Exoplanet Methods of detecting exoplanets Planetary system Planet-hosting stars. Accretion Accretion disk Asteroid belt Circumplanetary disk Circumstellar disc Circumstellar envelope Cosmic dust Debris disk Detached object Disrupted planet Excretion disk Exoplanetary Circumstellar Environments and Disk Explorer Exozodiacal dust Extraterrestrial materials Extraterrestrial sample curation Giant-impact hypothesis Gravitational collapse Hills cloud Interplanetary dust cloud Interplanetary medium Interplanetary space Interstellar cloud Interstellar dust Interstellar medium Interstellar space Kuiper belt List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules Merging stars Molecular cloud Nebular hypothesis Oort cloud Outer space Planetary migration Planetary system Planetesimal Planet formation Protoplanetary disk Ring system Rubble pile Sample-return mission Scattered disc Star formation.

Astrometry Direct imaging list Microlensing list Polarimetry Pulsar timing list Radial velocity list Transit method list Transit-timing variation.

Astrobiology Circumstellar habitable zone Earth analog Extraterrestrial liquid water Habitability of natural satellites Superhabitable planet.

Exoplanetary systems Host stars Multiplanetary systems Stars with proplyds Exoplanets Lists Discoveries Extremes Firsts Nearest Largest Most massive Terrestrial candidates Kepler Potentially habitable Proper names Discovered exoplanets by year before — Discoveries of exoplanets Search projects.

Big History. Big History series. Categories : Observational astronomy Planetary science Planets. Hidden categories: Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from May Articles with permanently dead external links CS1: long volume value Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Articles with short description Articles containing potentially dated statements from November All articles containing potentially dated statements Commons category link is on Wikidata Featured articles Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with NARA identifiers Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.

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Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikiversity. Io , Europa , Ganymede , and Callisto. The four largest moons of Jupiter , known as the Galilean moons after their discoverer Galileo Galilei.

He referred to them as the "Medicean Planets" in honor of his patron , the Medici family. They were known as secondary planets.

Titan , [f] Iapetus , [g] Rhea , [g] Tethys , [h] and Dione [h]. As with Jupiter's major moons, they were known as secondary planets.

Pallas , Juno , and Vesta. Regarded as planets from their discoveries between and until they were reclassified as asteroids during the s.

Www Planet Video

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Those farther out consist mostly of gas es and liquids. Also called major planet. Until , Pluto was classified as a planet ninth in order from the sun; it has been reclassified as a dwarf planet.

This windfall of words will make you rich with knowledge. Mine your memory on the words from July 27 to August 2!

Words nearby planet plane sailing , planeside , plane spotter , plane surveying , plane suture , planet , plane table , planetarian , planetarium , planetary , planetary nebula.

Mars, the fourth planet from the sun, is our neighbor, and it has long captivated the human mind and spirit.

But, how did Mars it get its name? Let's examine the difference between planets and exoplanets. Words related to planet sphere , earth , globe , world , asteroid , marble , orb , apple , planetoid , terrene.

Astronomy for Amateurs Camille Flammarion. Before Egypt E. History of Astronomy George Forbes. Also called: major planet any of the eight celestial bodies, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, that revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits and are illuminated by light from the sun.

Also called: extrasolar planet any other celestial body revolving around a star, illuminated by light from that star. In the traditional model of solar systems, a celestial body larger than an asteroid or comet, illuminated by light from a star, such as the Sun, around which it revolves.

A celestial body that orbits the Sun, has sufficient mass to assume nearly a round shape, clears out dust and debris from the neighborhood around its orbit, and is not a satellite of another planet.

Pluto was considered to be a planet until its reclassification in as a dwarf planet. The shrinking star can then become a planetary-mass object.

Some large satellites moons are of similar size or larger than the planet Mercury , e. Jupiter's Galilean moons and Titan.

Alan Stern has argued that location should not matter and that only geophysical attributes should be taken into account in the definition of a planet, and proposes the term satellite planet for a planet-sized satellite.

Rogue planets in stellar clusters have similar velocities to the stars and so can be recaptured. They are typically captured into wide orbits between and 10 5 AU.

It is almost independent of the planetary mass. Single and multiple planets could be captured into arbitrary unaligned orbits, non-coplanar with each other or with the stellar host spin, or pre-existing planetary system.

Although each planet has unique physical characteristics, a number of broad commonalities do exist among them. Some of these characteristics, such as rings or natural satellites, have only as yet been observed in planets in the Solar System, whereas others are also commonly observed in extrasolar planets.

According to current definitions, all planets must revolve around stars; thus, any potential " rogue planets " are excluded.

In the Solar System, all the planets orbit the Sun in the same direction as the Sun rotates counter-clockwise as seen from above the Sun's north pole.

At least one extrasolar planet, WASPb , has been found to orbit in the opposite direction to its star's rotation. No planet's orbit is perfectly circular, and hence the distance of each varies over the course of its year.

The closest approach to its star is called its periastron perihelion in the Solar System , whereas its farthest separation from the star is called its apastron aphelion.

As a planet approaches periastron, its speed increases as it trades gravitational potential energy for kinetic energy, just as a falling object on Earth accelerates as it falls; as the planet reaches apastron, its speed decreases, just as an object thrown upwards on Earth slows down as it reaches the apex of its trajectory.

Planets also have varying degrees of axial tilt; they lie at an angle to the plane of their stars' equators.

This causes the amount of light received by each hemisphere to vary over the course of its year; when the northern hemisphere points away from its star, the southern hemisphere points towards it, and vice versa.

Each planet therefore has seasons, changes to the climate over the course of its year. The time at which each hemisphere points farthest or nearest from its star is known as its solstice.

Each planet has two in the course of its orbit; when one hemisphere has its summer solstice, when its day is longest, the other has its winter solstice, when its day is shortest.

The varying amount of light and heat received by each hemisphere creates annual changes in weather patterns for each half of the planet. Jupiter's axial tilt is very small, so its seasonal variation is minimal; Uranus, on the other hand, has an axial tilt so extreme it is virtually on its side, which means that its hemispheres are either perpetually in sunlight or perpetually in darkness around the time of its solstices.

The planets rotate around invisible axes through their centres. A planet's rotation period is known as a stellar day. Most of the planets in the Solar System rotate in the same direction as they orbit the Sun, which is counter-clockwise as seen from above the Sun's north pole , the exceptions being Venus [] and Uranus, [] which rotate clockwise, though Uranus's extreme axial tilt means there are differing conventions on which of its poles is "north", and therefore whether it is rotating clockwise or anti-clockwise.

The rotation of a planet can be induced by several factors during formation. A net angular momentum can be induced by the individual angular momentum contributions of accreted objects.

The accretion of gas by the giant planets can also contribute to the angular momentum. Finally, during the last stages of planet building, a stochastic process of protoplanetary accretion can randomly alter the spin axis of the planet.

However, for "hot" Jupiters, their proximity to their stars means that they are tidally locked i. This means, they always show one face to their stars, with one side in perpetual day, the other in perpetual night.

The defining dynamic characteristic of a planet is that it has cleared its neighborhood. A planet that has cleared its neighborhood has accumulated enough mass to gather up or sweep away all the planetesimals in its orbit.

In effect, it orbits its star in isolation, as opposed to sharing its orbit with a multitude of similar-sized objects.

This characteristic was mandated as part of the IAU 's official definition of a planet in August, This criterion excludes such planetary bodies as Pluto , Eris and Ceres from full-fledged planethood, making them instead dwarf planets.

A planet's defining physical characteristic is that it is massive enough for the force of its own gravity to dominate over the electromagnetic forces binding its physical structure, leading to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium.

This effectively means that all planets are spherical or spheroidal. Up to a certain mass, an object can be irregular in shape, but beyond that point, which varies depending on the chemical makeup of the object, gravity begins to pull an object towards its own centre of mass until the object collapses into a sphere.

Mass is also the prime attribute by which planets are distinguished from stars. The upper mass limit for planethood is roughly 13 times Jupiter's mass for objects with solar-type isotopic abundance , beyond which it achieves conditions suitable for nuclear fusion.

Other than the Sun, no objects of such mass exist in the Solar System; but there are exoplanets of this size.

The Jupiter-mass limit is not universally agreed upon and the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia includes objects up to 60 Jupiter masses, [58] and the Exoplanet Data Explorer up to 24 Jupiter masses.

Its mass is roughly half that of the planet Mercury. Every planet began its existence in an entirely fluid state; in early formation, the denser, heavier materials sank to the centre, leaving the lighter materials near the surface.

Each therefore has a differentiated interior consisting of a dense planetary core surrounded by a mantle that either is or was a fluid.

The terrestrial planets are sealed within hard crusts , [] but in the giant planets the mantle simply blends into the upper cloud layers. The terrestrial planets have cores of elements such as iron and nickel , and mantles of silicates.

Jupiter and Saturn are believed to have cores of rock and metal surrounded by mantles of metallic hydrogen.

All of the Solar System planets except Mercury [] have substantial atmospheres because their gravity is strong enough to keep gases close to the surface.

The larger giant planets are massive enough to keep large amounts of the light gases hydrogen and helium , whereas the smaller planets lose these gases into space.

Planetary atmospheres are affected by the varying insolation or internal energy, leading to the formation of dynamic weather systems such as hurricanes , on Earth , planet-wide dust storms on Mars , a greater-than-Earth-sized anticyclone on Jupiter called the Great Red Spot , and holes in the atmosphere on Neptune.

Hot Jupiters, due to their extreme proximities to their host stars, have been shown to be losing their atmospheres into space due to stellar radiation, much like the tails of comets.

One important characteristic of the planets is their intrinsic magnetic moments , which in turn give rise to magnetospheres. The presence of a magnetic field indicates that the planet is still geologically alive.

In other words, magnetized planets have flows of electrically conducting material in their interiors, which generate their magnetic fields.

These fields significantly change the interaction of the planet and solar wind. A magnetized planet creates a cavity in the solar wind around itself called the magnetosphere, which the wind cannot penetrate.

The magnetosphere can be much larger than the planet itself. In contrast, non-magnetized planets have only small magnetospheres induced by interaction of the ionosphere with the solar wind, which cannot effectively protect the planet.

Of the eight planets in the Solar System, only Venus and Mars lack such a magnetic field. Of the magnetized planets the magnetic field of Mercury is the weakest, and is barely able to deflect the solar wind.

Ganymede's magnetic field is several times larger, and Jupiter's is the strongest in the Solar System so strong in fact that it poses a serious health risk to future manned missions to its moons.

The magnetic fields of the other giant planets are roughly similar in strength to that of Earth, but their magnetic moments are significantly larger.

The magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune are strongly tilted relative the rotational axis and displaced from the centre of the planet. In , a team of astronomers in Hawaii observed an extrasolar planet around the star HD , which appeared to be creating a sunspot on the surface of its parent star.

Several planets or dwarf planets in the Solar System such as Neptune and Pluto have orbital periods that are in resonance with each other or with smaller bodies this is also common in satellite systems.

All except Mercury and Venus have natural satellites , often called "moons". Earth has one, Mars has two, and the giant planets have numerous moons in complex planetary-type systems.

Many moons of the giant planets have features similar to those on the terrestrial planets and dwarf planets, and some have been studied as possible abodes of life especially Europa.

The four giant planets are also orbited by planetary rings of varying size and complexity. The rings are composed primarily of dust or particulate matter, but can host tiny ' moonlets ' whose gravity shapes and maintains their structure.

Although the origins of planetary rings is not precisely known, they are believed to be the result of natural satellites that fell below their parent planet's Roche limit and were torn apart by tidal forces.

No secondary characteristics have been observed around extrasolar planets. The sub-brown dwarf Cha , which has been described as a rogue planet , is believed to be orbited by a tiny protoplanetary disc [] and the sub-brown dwarf OTS 44 was shown to be surrounded by a substantial protoplanetary disk of at least 10 Earth masses.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the astronomical object. For planets in astrology, see Planets in astrology.

For other uses, see Planet disambiguation. Class of astronomical body directly orbiting a star or stellar remnant. Further information: History of astronomy , Definition of planet , and Timeline of Solar System astronomy.

Main article: Babylonian astronomy. See also: Greek astronomy. Main articles: Indian astronomy and Hindu cosmology. Main articles: Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world and Cosmology in medieval Islam.

See also: Heliocentrism. Main article: IAU definition of planet. See also: List of former planets. See also: Weekday names and Naked-eye planet.

Main article: Nebular hypothesis. Supernova remnant ejecta producing planet-forming material. Solar System — sizes but not distances are to scale.

The Sun and the eight planets of the Solar System. The inner planets , Mercury , Venus , Earth , and Mars. Main article: Solar System.

See also: List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System. Main article: Exoplanet. Main article: Dwarf planet. Main article: Rogue planet.

See also: Five-planet Nice model. Main article: Sub-brown dwarf. Main article: Satellite planet. Main articles: Orbit and Orbital elements.

Main article: Axial tilt. Main article: Clearing the neighbourhood. Main article: Planetary mass.

Main article: Planetary differentiation. Main articles: Atmosphere and Extraterrestrial atmospheres. See also: Extraterrestrial skies. Main article: Magnetosphere.

Main articles: Natural satellite and Planetary ring. Astronomy portal Solar System portal Space portal. The official definition applies only to the Solar System, whereas the definition applies to planets around other stars.

The extrasolar planet issue was deemed too complex to resolve at the IAU conference. The term "satellite" had already begun to be used to distinguish such bodies from those around which they orbited "primary planets".

International Astronomical Union. Retrieved Archived from the original on Retrieved 10 May The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia.

New York Times. Kubas; J. Beaulieu; M. Dominik; et al. Bibcode : Natur. Archived from the original on 7 November Retrieved 7 November Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Bibcode : PNAS.. The Library of Congress. Merriam-Webster OnLine. Retrieved 29 June Oxford English Dictionary.

Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Astronomy in China, Korea and Japan Walker ed. The Copernican Revolution. Harvard University Press.

The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy. Oxford University Press. In Jack Sasson ed. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East.

A History of Horoscopic Astrology. Astrological reports to Assyrian kings. State Archives of Assyria. Helsinki University Press.

Part One. Journal of the American Oriental Society. Mare Kõiva; Andres Kuperjanov eds. Electronic Journal of Folklore.

Sachs May 2, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. Greek philosophy: Thales to Plato. Macmillan and Co. Journal for the History of Astronomy.

Bibcode : JHA Ptolemy's Almagest. Princeton University Press. O'Connor and E. Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India.

Bibcode : BASI Ragep In Thomas Hockey ed. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Bibcode : eaa.. Razaullah Ansari History of oriental astronomy: proceedings of the joint discussion at the 23rd General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union, organised by the Commission 41 History of Astronomy , held in Kyoto, August 25—26, Retrieved 11 February The Galileo Project.

Naval Observatory. The Free Press. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Bibcode : PNAS Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm.

Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. IAU Circular. Bibcode : IAUC. Circular No. Archived from the original on June 24, Astrophysical Journal.

Bibcode : ApJ University of California and the Carnegie Institution. Alan Spitzer Finds Cosmic Oddball". The Astrophysical Journal.

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Kein anderes Haustier ist uns so treu ergeben wie der Hund. Startseite: aktuelle Sendungen. All Rights Reserved. Doch dürfen sie auch frech sein oder gar Localbitcoins Paysafecard Der Sommer wird anders. Kinder und die Corona-Krise. Darwins Reise zur Evolution.

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